• Sura A Abdulsattar Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4707-7799
  • Abdullah H Drywall Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq.



 Objective: An interaction between a nanoparticle and the immune system is considered desirable when it may lead to various beneficial medical applications such as vaccines, delivery of drugs, antigens or therapeutics for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. This study aims to evaluate the impact of some immune proteins by the presence of gold and nickel nanoparticles in sera of toxoplasmosis patients.

Methods: A total of 20 patients women with toxoplasmosis aged (20-40 year) attending Central Health Laboratory in Baghdad city for the period (November 2016 to February 2017) and 20 age-matched of women healthy as a control were included in this study.

Results: A non-significant increase in the activity and specific activity of protease in the sera of women infected with toxoplasmosis were observed in comparison to their values in the healthy (p˃0.05). While a non-significant decrease in total protein values was reported. The results of effect of nanoparticles showed a decrease in the level of the enzyme in the presence of nanoparticles by 41.3%, while the results showed that inhibition of nickel nanoparticles was greater and 43.8%. The results indicated that IgA, IgG, and IgM levels were decreased in the presence of gold nanoparticles. In the same context, both IgA and IgG were shown to be inhibitory in the presence of nickel nanoparticles while the results showed activation of the IgM level with nickel nanoparticles.

Conclusion: We conclude from this study that other studies are required to confirm our results and therefore support the possibility of using nickel nanoparticles as a support for the treatment of toxoplasmosis through its dual effect first by reducing the protease, which is essential for survival of the parasite and second by activating IgM level, which enhances the immune defense of the body against the parasite.

Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Nanoparticle, Protease, Toxoplasmosis, Gold.


1. Beck G, Habitat GS. Immunity and the invertebrates. Sci Am 1996;275(5):60-6. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1196-60.
2. American Heritage Dictionary. The American Heritage Student Dictionary. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company; 2014.
3. Bird PI, Trapani JA, Villadangos JA. Endolysosomal proteases and their inhibitors in immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2009;9(12):871-82.
4. Hökelek M. Toxoplasmosis . (Medscape) Updated, October, 24; 2016.
5. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Available from: https://www.medlineplus.gov/toxoplasmosis.html#cat_59.
6. Dykman LA, Khlebtsov NG. Gold nanoparticles in biology and medicine: Recent advances and prospects. Acta Naturae 2011;3(2):34-55.
7. Zhang X. Gold nanoparticles: Recent advances in the biomedical applications. Cell Biochem Biophys 2015;72(3):771-5.
8. Zolnik BS, González-Fernández A, Sadrieh N, Dobrovolskaia MA. Nanoparticles and the immune system. Endocrinology 2010;151(3):458-65.
9. Kononenko V, Narat M, Drobne D. Nanoparticle interaction with the immune system. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2015;66(2):97-108.
10. Dobrovolskaia MA, Shurin M, Shvedova AA. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016;299:78-89.
11. Ishaya I, Swirski E. Trehalase invertase and amylase activities in the larvae of Egyptian cotton worm, Spodoptera littoralis (L). J Insect Physiol 1971;17(5):945-53.
12. Vitthalrao K, Sucheta DS. Protein contents and activity of enzymes in the mod gut homogenate of fifthinstar larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L). (Race: PM x CSR2) fed withherbal drug(Kho-go) treated mulberry leaves. Res J Recent Sci 2012;1(2):49-55.
13. Mancini G, Carbonara AO, Heremans JF. Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry 1965;2(3):235-54.
14. Leitz KH, Redlingshöfer B, Reg Y, Otto A, Schmidt M. Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses. Phys Procedia 2011;12:230-8.
15. Abdulsattar AS, Hadi DH, Algam HH. Biochemical characterization of protease and its impact by nano particles in sera of Iraqi patients with burns. Med J Babylon 2015;12(4):870-81.
16. López-Otín C, Bond JS. Proteases: Multifunctional enzymes in life and disease. J Biol Chem 2008;283(45):30433-7.
17. Dou Z, Carruthers VB. Cathepsin proteases Toxoplasma gondii. In: Madame Curie Bioscience Database. Austin (TX): Landes Bioscience; 2000-2013.
18. Lagal V, Binder EM, Huynh MH, Kafsack BF, Harris PK, Diez R, et al. Toxoplasma gondii protease TgSUB1 is required for cell surface processing of micronemal adhesive complexes and efficient adhesion of tachyzoites. Cell Microbiol 2010;12(12):1792-808.
19. Najafi-Hajivar S, Zakeri-Milani P, Mohammadi H, Niazi M, Soleymani-Goloujeh M, Baradaran B, et al. Overview on experimental models of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system. Biomed Pharmacother 2016;83:1365-78.
20. Chudasama B, Vala AK, Andhariya N, Mehta RV, Upadhyay RV. Highly bacterial resistant silver nanoparticles: Synthesis and antibacterial activities. J Nanopart Res. 2010;12(5):1677-85.
21. Newsholme E, Leech T. Functional Biochemistry in Health and Disease. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing; 2010. p. 385.
22. Leweke FM, Gerth CW, Koethe D, Klosterkötter J, Ruslanova I, Krivogorsky B, et al. Antibodies to infectious agents in individuals with recent onset schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004;254(1):4-8.
23. Torrey EF, Yolken RH. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9(11):1375-80.
24. Stommel EW, Seguin R, Thadani VM, Schwartzman JD, Gilbert K, Ryan KA, et al. Cryptogenic epilepsy: An infectious etiology? Epilepsia 2001;42(3):436-8.
25. Hester J, Mullins J, Sa Q, Payne L, Mercier C, Cesbron-Delauw MF, et al. Toxoplasma gondii antigens recognized by IgG antibodies differ between mice with and without active proliferation of tachyzoites in the brain during the chronic stage of infection. Infect Immun 2012;80(10):3611-20.
387 Views | 328 Downloads
How to Cite
A Abdulsattar, S., and A. H Drywall. “EFFECT OF GOLD AND NICKEL NANOPARTICLES ON IMMUNE PROTEINS OF TOXOPLASMOSIS PATIENTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 10, Sept. 2017, pp. 162-4, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i10.20359.
Original Article(s)