• Ravindra Reddy Kandula Department of Pharmaceutics, Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, Kurnool - 518 218, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • Narasimha Jayaveera Korlakunta Department of Chemistry, VEMU Institute of Technology, Pakala Kothakota - 517 112, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • Raghavendra Mitta Department of Pharmacology, CMR College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad - 501 401, Telangana, India




Arthrospira platensis, Oxidative stress, Serum biomarkers, Sodium fluoride



 Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore the in vitro antioxidant and effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Arthrospira platensis (ASP) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced toxic effects on soft tissues (heart, liver, and kidney).

Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, metal chelation, total antioxidant and reducing power assays, and total flavonoid and phenol content. In this study, 36 male Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Animals were served as Group I - normal control, Group II - toxic control, and Groups III, IV, and V - treatment groups, which received hydroalcoholic extract of ASP at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (p.o), respectively. Group VI served as plant control received hydroalcoholic extract of ASP at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight (p.o). All groups except Groups I and VI received NaF (100 ppm) through drinking water for 30 days.

Results: Results showed that intoxication of NaF caused significant elevation of serum biomarkers of the heart, liver, and kidney and altered tissue oxidative stress markers' levels. Administration of hydroalcoholic extract of ASP significantly normalized elevated serum levels of heart (p<0.001), liver (p<0.001, p<0.05), and kidney biomarkers (p<0.001). Decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in reduced glutathione and catalase enzyme levels in a dose-dependent manner were observed in soft tissues (p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.05).

Conclusion: The study revealed that ASP has good antioxidant and mitigative action against NaF intoxication on soft tissues.


Hassan HA, Yousef MI. Mitigating effects of antioxidant properties of black berry juice on sodium fluoride induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47(9):2332-7.

Ghosh A, Mukherjee K, Sumanta KG, Saha B. Sources and toxicity of fluoride in environment. Res Chem Intermed 2013;39(7):2881-915.

Amini M, Mueller K, Abbaspour KC, Rosenberg T, Afyuni M, Møller KN, et al. Statistical modeling of global geogenic fluoride contamination in groundwaters. Environ Sci Technol 2008;42(10):3662-8.

Ayoob S, Gupta AK. Fluoride in drinking Water: A review on status and stress effects. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 2006;36(6):433-87.

Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AV. Amelioration of fluoride induced oxidative stress by Mangifera indica L. fruit. Spatula DD 2011;1(4):181-8.

Emejulu AA, Alisi CS, Asiwe ES, Lgwe CU, Nwogu LA, Onwuliri VA. Renal and hepato-protective effects of Irvingia gabonensis juice on sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in wistar rats. J Clin Toxicol 2016;6(2):1-6.

Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AV. Alleviatory effects of Emblica officinalis G. As a food supplement in fluoride induced hyperlipemia and oxidative stress. Int J Pharm Sci 2012;4(1):404-8.

El-Baz FK, El-Senousy WM, El-Sayed AB, Kamel MM. In vitro antiviral and antimicrobial activites of Spirulina platensis extract. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3(12):52-6.

Sharoud MN. Protective effect of Spirulina platensis against paracetamol induced hepatic injury in rats. J Exp Biol Agric Sci 2015;3(1):44-53.

Karadeniz A, Yildirim A, Simsek N, Kalkan Y, Celebi F. Spirulina platensis protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res 2008;22(11):1506-10.

Ibrahim AE, Abdel-Daim MM. Modulating effects of Spirulina platensis against tilmicosin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Cell J 2015;17(1):137-44.

Balasubramanian V, Swetha B, Gayasuddin MD, Smreen S. Antiobesity activity of Spirulina platensis in high fat induced rats. Int J Pharmacol Screen Methods 2013;3(1):1-5.

Maniyar R, Umashankar GK. Effectiveness of spirulina mouthwash on reduction of dental plaque and gingivitis: A clinical study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9(7):136-9.

Raghavendra M, Reddy AM, Yadav PR, Raju AS, Kumar LS. Comparative studies on the in vitro antioxidant properties of methanolic leafy extracts from six edible leafy vegetables of India. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6(30):96-9.

Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AV. Ameliorative effect of tamarind leaf on fluoride-induced metabolic alterations. Environ Health Prev Med 2012;17(6):484-93.

Claiborne A. In: Greenwald RA, editor. Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1985. p. 283-4.

Jollow DJ, Mitchell JR, Zampaglione N, Gillette JR. Bromobenzene-induced liver necrosis. Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacology 1974;11(3):151-69.

Niehaus WG Jr, Samuelsson B. Formation of malonaldehyde from phospholipid arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation. Eur J Biochem 1968;6(1):126-30.

Ibrahim AA, El-Khalek AM. Possible protective role of calcium against fluoride induced cardio toxicities in adult male albino rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(4):499-510.

Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AV. Antihyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Mangifera indica L. In fluoride induced toxicity. Phamacologyonline 2011;3:265-74.

Simmons D, Joshi S, Shaw J. Hypomagnesaemia is associated with diabetes: Not pre-diabetes, obesity or the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;87(2):261-6.

Vasant RA, Vincent ER, Karan SS, Narasimhacharya AL. Multigrain diet mitigates fluoride induced metabolic toxicity. J Environ Occup Sci 2014;3(1):25-30.

Nabavi SF, Moghaddam AH, Eslami S, Nabavi SM. Protective effects of curcumin against sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in rat kidneys. Biol Trace Elem Res 2012;145(3):369-74.

Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM, Mirzaei M, Moghaddam AH. Protective effect of quercetin against sodium fluoride induced oxidative stress in rat’s heart. Food Funct 2012;3(4):437-41.

Kobayashi CA, Leite AL, Silva TL, Santos LD, Nogueira FC, Oliveira RC, et al. Proteomic analysis of kidney in rats chronically exposed to fluoride. Chem Biol Interact 2009;180(2):305-11.



How to Cite

Kandula, R. R., N. J. Korlakunta, and R. Mitta. “EFFECT OF ARTHROSPIRA PLATENSIS AS A FOOD SUPPLEMENT AGAINST SODIUM FLUORIDEINDUCED INTOXICATION ON SOFT TISSUES OF MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, no. 11, Nov. 2017, pp. 133-6, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i11.20382.



Original Article(s)