ANTIMICROBIAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF RICINODENDRON HEUDELOTII (BAILL.)
Â Objective: This work assessed the antimicrobial activity and toxicological consequence of the ethanolic extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill).
Methods: The antimicrobial potential of the leaf extract was investigated against 9 different microorganisms using the agar well diffusion method while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ascertained. Toxicity evaluations were carried out on five groups of seven albino rats each for 28 days. Rats in Group A received normal saline, while those in Groups B, C, D, and E received 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of the extract. After treatment, they were anesthetized, blood samples collected for biochemical assays; organs isolated, weighed, and processed for histopathological studies.
Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of glycosides, tannins, polyphenols, terpenoids, and alkaloids while saponin was absent. Antimicrobial effect was observed against 7 of the 9 microorganisms tested with inhibition zone and MIC ranging from 18 to 36 mm and 31.25 to 62.5 mg/mL, respectively. Liver function tests were significantly (p<0.05) increased, whereas no significant change in total protein and creatinine levels was observed. Histology showed a sinusoidal congestion and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes in groups administered higher doses, and a dose-dependent reduction was observed in some hematological parameters.
Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the R. heudelotii may not induce significant toxic effect below 3600 mg/kg b.w. and could serve as an effective antibiotic.
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