• Nondita Prasad Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India.
  • Balbir Singh Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.
  • Diksha Puri Department of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India.



 Objective: Justicia gendarussa Burm. (family Acanthaceae) commonly known as nilinirgundi, is found in Southern India possesses multifarious biological activities due to large range of phytoconstituents. The present study is designed to evaluate the various pharmacognostic parameters of the leaves of J. gendarussa, found in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand for its authentication.

Methods: Fresh leaves were taken for the morphological and microscopical (histology and powder) evaluation. Physicochemical parameters (ash values, extractives values, florescence analysis, microbial contamination, and loss on drying) were also performed. Phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatographic fingerprinting of extracts were also performed to check the presence of various phytoconstituents.

Results: The microscopy of the leaves evinced the presence of anisocytic stomata, cuboidal calcium oxalate crystals, cystoliths, multicellular covering trichomes, starch grains and oil globules. The quantitative estimation of total ash, acid insoluble, and water soluble ash values were 13.8%, 1.2%, and 4.5% w/w, respectively. The alcohol soluble and water soluble extractives were estimated as 11.45% and 15.67% w/w, respectively. Foreign organic matter and loss on drying values obtained were 0.23% and 11.2% w/w. Phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts ascertained the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids. The thin-layer chromatography (TLC) profiling of different extracts revealed the presence of potential compounds which can be further isolated with the help of high-performance liquid chromatography or high-performance TLC.

Conclusion: The results of this study provide suitable standards for the authentication of this plant. In the present study, there are certain variations observed from the evaluations done on the same species by other research groups. The probable reason suggested for such disparity is due to the environmental and geographical differences in the locations of the plant collected.

Keywords: Justicia gendarussa Burm., Leaves, Stomata, Macroscopy, Microscopy, Physicochemical evaluation, Phytochemical screening.

Author Biography

Nondita Prasad, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India.
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Asst. Prof


1. Subramanian N, Jothimanivannan C, Kumar RS, Kameshwaran S. Evaluation of anti-anxiety activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Pharmacologia 2013;4(5):404-7.
2. Chandrasekar R, Chandrasekar S. Natural herbal treatment for rheumatoid arthritis - A review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017;8(2):368-84.
3. Paval J, Kaitheri SK, Potu BK, Govindan S, Kumar RS, Narayanan SN, et al. Anti-arthritic potential of the plant Justicia gendarussa Burm F. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2009;64(4):357-62.
4. Mrunthunjaya K, Hukkeri VI. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of J. gendarussa Burm, leaves in vitro. Nat Prod Sci 2007;13(3):199-206.
5. Uddin R, Sinha S, Hossain A, Kaisar A, Hossain K, Rashid MA. Chemical and biological investigations of Justicia gendarussa (Burm. f). Dhaka Univ J Pharm Sci 2011;10(1):53-7.
6. Shikha P, Latha PG, Suja SR, Anuja GI, Shyamal S, Shine VJ, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm f. Leaves. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2010;1(4):456-61.
7. Sharma KK, Saikia R, Kotoky J, Kalita JC, Devi R. Anti-fungalactivity of Solanum melongena L, Lawsonia inermis L. And Justicia gendarussa B. Against dermatophytes. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3(3):1636-40.
8. Periyanayagam K, Umamaheswari B, Suseela L, Padmini M, Ismail M. Evaluation of antiangiogenic effect of the leaves of Justicia gendarussa (Burm. f) (Acanthaceae) by chrioallontoic membrane method. Am J Infect Dis 2009;5(3):180-2.
9. Jothimanivannan C, Kumar RS, Subramanian N. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanol extract of aerial parts of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Int J Pharmacol 2010;6(3):278-83.
10. Krishna KL, Mruthunjaya K, Jagruti AP. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of stem methanolic extractof Justicia gendarussa Burm. Int J Pharmacol 2010;6(2):72-80.
11. Siva SA, Vijayalakshmi M. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of chloroform extract from Justicia gendarussa. Int J Ethnomed Pharmacol Res 2013;1(1):88-91.
12. Zahidah A, Azman AS, Siti PM. Cytotoxicity activities in local Justicia gendarussa crude extracts against human cancer cell lines. Jurnalteknologi 2013;64(2):45-52.
13. Saha MR, Debnath PC, Rahman MA, Islam MA. Evaluation of in vitro anthelmintic activities of leaf and stem extracts of Justicia gendarussa. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2012;7:50-3.
14. Zahidah A, Azman AS, Siti PM, Jamil S. Cytotoxic activities against breast cancer cells of local Justicia gendarussa crude extracts. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:1-12.
15. Correa GM, Alcantara AF. Chemical constituents and biological activities of species of Justicia - A review. Rev Bras Farmacogn Braz J Pharmacogn 2012;22(1):220-38.
16. Agastian P, Williams L, Ignacimuthu S. In vitro propagation of Justicia gendarussa Burm f. - A medicinal plant. Indian J Biotechnol 2006;5:246-8.
17. Ayob Z, Saari NH, Samad AA. In Vitro Propagation and Flavonoid Contents in Local Justicia gendarussa Burm. F. UMT 11th International Annual Symposium on Sustainability Science and Management; 2012. p403-409.
18. Bhagya N, Chandrashekar KR. In vitro production of bioactive compounds from stem and leaf explants of Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6(1):100-5.
19. Bader GN, Mir PA, Bhat ZA. Present status of anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic phytoconstituents: A review. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3(11):272-310.
20. WHO. Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials. Geneva, England: World Health Organization; 1998.
21. Kandasamy CS, Nath S, Arulraj P, Gopal V, Muthusamy P, Venkatanarayanan R. Anti-microbial activity of the crude drugs and the polyherbal formulation (RVSPHF567) by standardized cup and plate method. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011;2(10):189-95.
22. Aiswarya G, Gupta R, Kambhoja S. Isolation of 28-pentyl-3-galloyl-betulinate and11-hydroxy friedelane from the plant Argyreia speciosa. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2010;1(3):207-21.
23. Khandelwal KR. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening in Practical Pharmacognosy. 18th ed. Pune: Niralli Parkashan; 2004. p. 149-56.
24. Kagan IA, Flythe MD. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds. J Vis Exp 2014;85.
25. Sonal P, Nayana K, Bakula S, Mamta S. Botanical identification and physicochemical investigation of leaf of Nili-nirgundi (Justicia gendarussa). Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2011;10(1):116-21.
764 Views | 741 Downloads
How to Cite
Prasad, N., B. Singh, and D. Puri. “PHARMACOGNOSTIC SCREENING STUDIES OF JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA BURM. LEAVES FOUND IN DEHRADUN DISTRICT OF UTTARAKHAND”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 16, Sept. 2017, pp. 83-87, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10s4.21342.
Original Article(s)