ROLE OF EXOGENOUS ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS IN ORAL CARCINOGENESIS: A REVIEW
Objective: Glycation is the chemical reaction involving the modification of proteins and amino acids in the presence of reducing sugars, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are heterogeneous compounds whose accumulation is implicated as the pathogenesis in various chronic diseases.
Method: A narrative review of all the articles known to the authors was conducted.
Results: Tobacco and diet are the two major sources of exogenous AGE and the foremost characteristic of the glycotoxins, formed from tobacco curing reaction, is their high reactivity and innate ability to cross the cell membrane and bind with serum proteins and formation of adducts with amino acids of nucleic acids. Binding of AGEs to their receptor for AGE activates mechanisms which favor production of reactive oxidative species and proinflammatory cytokines. AGEs are also implicated as key players in cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells and also significantly contribute to genotoxicity. Salivary estimation of AGEs is a promising exposition to monitor the prognosis of oral pre-cancers and cancer.
Conclusion: This review aims in eliciting the role of AGEs in pathogenesis of oral cancer and its possible development as a biomarker to monitor the initiation and progression of cancer.
2. Hodge JE. Dehydrated foods, chemistry of browning reactions in model systems. J Agric Food Chem 1953;1:928-43.
3. Booth AA, Khalifah RG, Todd P, Hudson BG. In vitro kinetic studies of formation of antigenic advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Novel inhibition of post-amadori glycation pathways. J Biol Chem 1997;272:5430-7.
4. Goldberg T, Cai W, Peppa M, Dardaine V, Baliga BS, Uribarri J, et al. Advanced glycoxidation end products in commonly consumed foods. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:1287-91.
5. Cerami C, Founds H, Nicholl I, Mitsuhashi T, Giordano D, Vanpatten S, et al. Tobacco smoke is a source of toxic reactive glycation products. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94:13915-20.
6. Bucala R, Makita Z, Koschinsky T, Cerami A, Vlassara H. Lipid advanced glycosylation: Pathway for lipid oxidation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:6434-8.
7. Chiarelli F, de Martino M, Mezzetti A, Catino M, Morgese G, Cuccurullo F, et al. Advanced glycation end products in children and adolescents with diabetes: Relation to glycemic control and early microvascular complications. J Pediatr 1999;134:486-91.
8. Yan SF, Ramasamy R, Schmidt AM. The RAGE axis: A fundamental mechanism signaling danger to the vulnerable vasculature. Circ Res 2010;106:842-53.
9. Forbes JM, Cooper ME, Oldfield MD, Thomas MC. Role of advanced glycation end products in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:S254-8.
10. Sano H, Higashi T, Matsumoto K, Melkko J, Jinnouchi Y, Ikeda K, et al. Insulin enhances macrophage scavenger receptor-mediated endocytic uptake of advanced glycation end products. J Biol Chem 1998;273:8630-7.
11. Singh R, Barden A, Mori T, Beilin L. Advanced glycation end-products: A review. Diabetologia 2001;44:129-46.
12. Mizutani K, Ikeda K, Ito T, Tamaki K, Nara Y, Yamori Y. Protective effect of inducible type nitric oxide synthase against intracellular oxidative stress caused by advanced glycation end-products in vascular smooth muscle cells from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 2000;18:1071-9.
13. Vlassara H, Cai W, Crandall J, Goldberg T, Oberstein R, Dardaine V, et al. Inflammatory mediators are induced by dietary glycotoxins, a major risk factor for diabetic angiopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:15596-601.
14. Lander HM, Tauras JM, Ogiste JS, Hori O, Moss RA, Schmidt AM, et al. Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products triggers a p21(ras)-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulated by oxidant stress. J Biol Chem 1997;272:17810-4.
15. Perkins ND. Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-ÎºB and IKK function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2007;8:49-62.
16. Rosales-Corral S, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Ortiz GG, Lopez-Armas G. Functional aspects of redox control during neuroinflammation. Antioxid Redox Signal 2010;13:193-247.
17. Bianchi R, Kastrisianaki E, Giambanco I, Donato R. S100B protein stimulates microglia migration via RAGE-dependent up-regulation of chemokine expression and release. J Biol Chem 2011;286:7214-26.
18. Nicholl ID, Stitt AW, Moore JE, Ritchie AJ, Archer DB, Bucala R, et al. Increased levels of advanced glycation endproducts in the lenses and blood vessels of cigarette smokers. Mol Med 1998;4:594-601.
19. Yamagishi S, Matsui T, Nakamura K. Possible involvement of tobacco-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in an increased risk for developing cancers and cardiovascular disease in former smokers. Med Hypotheses 2008;71:259-61.
20. Heijmans J, BÃ¼ller NV, Hoff E, Dihal AA, van der Poll T, van Zoelen MA, et al. Rage signalling promotes intestinal tumourigenesis. Oncogene 2013;32:1202-6.
21. Miki S, Kasayama S, Miki Y, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto M, Sato B, et al. Expression of receptors for advanced glycosylation end products on renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993;196:984-9.
22. Bhawal UK, Ozaki Y, Nishimura M, Sugiyama M, Sasahira T, Nomura Y, et al. Association of expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products and invasive activity of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncology 2005;69:246-55.
23. Sasahira T, Kirita T, Bhawal UK, Yamamoto K, Ohmori H, Fujii K, et al. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is important in the prediction of recurrence in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathology 2007;51:166-72.
24. Senger DR, Van de Water L, Brown LF, Nagy JA, Yeo KT, Yeo TK, et al. Vascular permeability factor (VPF, VEGF) in tumor biology. Cancer Metastasis Rev 1993;12:303-24.
25. Ueno T, Toi M, Saji H, Muta M, Bando H, Kuroi K, et al. Significance of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 in macrophage recruitment, angiogenesis, and survival in human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2000;6:3282-9.
26. Enomoto M, Adachi H, Yamagishi S, Takeuchi M, Furuki K, Hino A, et al. Positive association of serum levels of advanced glycation end products with thrombogenic markers in humans. Metabolism 2006;55:912-7.
27. Bondeva T, Heinzig J, Ruhe C, Wolf G. Advanced glycated end-products affect HIF-transcriptional activity in renal cells. Mol Endocrinol 2013;27:1918-33.
28. Chen H, Wu L, Li Y, Meng J, Lin N, Yang D, et al. Advanced glycation end products increase carbohydrate responsive element binding protein expression and promote cancer cell proliferation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2014;395:69-78.
29. Takino J, Yamagishi S, Takeuchi M. Cancer malignancy is enhanced by glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products. J Oncol 2010;2010:739852.
30. Patel BP, Shah SV, Shukla SN, Shah PM, Patel PS. Clinical significance of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in patients with oral cancer. Head Neck 2007;29:564-72.
31. Ko SY, Ko HA, Shieh TM, Chang WC, Chen HI, Chang SS, et al. Cell migration is regulated by AGE-RAGE interaction in human oral cancer cells in vitro. PLoS One 2014;9:e110542.
32. Stopper H, Schinzel R, Sebekova K, Heidland A. Genotoxicity of advanced glycation end products in mammalian cells. Cancer Lett 2003;190:151-6.
33. Mizutani K, Ikeda K, Nishikata T, Yamori Y. Phytoestrogens attenuate oxidative DNA damage in vascular smooth muscle cells from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 2000;18:1833-40.
34. Putta S, Kilari EK. A review on methods of estimation of advanced glycation end products. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:689-99.
35. TÃ³thovÃ¡ L, KamodyovÃ¡ N, ÄŒervenka T, Celec P. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2015;5:73.
36. VlkovÃ¡ B, Stanko P, MinÃ¡rik G, TÃ³thovÃ¡ L, Szemes T, BaÅˆasovÃ¡ L, et al. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in patients with oral premalignant lesions. Arch Oral Biol 2012;57:1651-6.
37. Kshirsagar P, More T, Arvindekar A, Gaikwad N. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antiglycation properties of some Swertia species from Western Ghats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:303-6.
38. Sangram V, Akula KK, Sangram V. A comparative evaluation of enzymatic antioxidant levels in pre and post therapy patients with oral cancer. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:52-6.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.