CORRELATION OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF MOTHER AND THE BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE BABY
Objective: The objective of this study is to correlate motherâ€™s nutritional status during pregnancy and determine the birth weight of the baby.
Methods: A comparative, exploratory approach and prospective cohort study design was used to find out mothersâ€™ nutritional status during pregnancy influences the birth weight of babies. The data were collected using structured interview schedule and dietary history by 24 h recall method from a randomly selected sample of 380 eligible mothers delivered at Krishna Hospital, Karad.
Results: There was a significant correlation between birth weight and calorie intake (correlation coefficient [r]=0.595; p<0.001; Chi-square=201.3; p<0.001.) A higher proportion of low birth weight babies, i.e., 105 (32.2%) were delivered by the mothers consuming <70% of protein ([r]=0.245; p<0.001; Ï‡2=24.033; p<0.001]). There was correlation between birth weight and calcium intake of mothers ([r]=0.525; p<0.001; Ï‡2=10.12; p<0.001] â€œbirthâ€ weight and iron intake of mothers ([r]=0.250; p<0.001; Ï‡2=13.798; p<0.001).
Conclusion: The intake of calorie, protein, calcium, and iron of mother can significantly influence the weight of the newborn baby. Among all anthropometric parameters of the mother, weight gain was the strongest predictor of adequacy of the birth weight.
2. UNSCN (United Nations Sub-Committee on Nutrition). 5th Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Nutrition for Improved Development Outcomes. New York: UNSCN; 2004.
3. Behrman J, Alderman H, Haddinott J. Hunger and malnutrition. Copenhagen Consensus Challenge Paper, Copenhagen Consensus. Copenhagen, Denmark: Environmental Assessment Institute; 2004.
4. Martorell R. The nature of child malnutrition and its long-term implications. Food Nutr Bull 1999;20:288-2.
5. Villar J, Belizan JM. The relative contribution of prematurity and fetal growth retardation to low birth weight in developing and developed societies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;143:793-8.
6. Dinh PH, To TH, Vuong TH, Hojer B, Persson LA. Maternal factors influencing the occurrence of low birth weight in northern Vietnam. Ann Trop Paediatr 1996;16:327-33.
7. Ramakrishnan U, Martorell R, Schroeder DG, Flores, R. Intergenerational effects on linear growth. J Nutr 1999;129:544-9.
8. Raman L, Rao KV, Adinarayana K, Rawal A, Vasumathi N, Parvati CH, et al. Risk care approach to anaemia in pregnancy in an urban slum. Bull World Health Organ 1995;73:75-6.
9. Kulkarni B, Shatrugna V, Balakrishna N. Maternal lean body mass may be the major determinant of birth weight: A study from India. Euro J Clin Nutr 2006;60:1341-4.
10. Naidu AN, Rao NP. Body mass index. A measure of the nutritional status in Indian populations. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:S131-40.
11. Dharmalingam A, Navaneetham K, Krishnakumar CS. Nutritional status of mothers and low birth weight in India. Matern Child Health J 2010;14:290-8.
12. Thame M, Wilks RJ, McFarlane Anderson N, Bennett FI, Forrester TE. Relationship between maternal nutritional status and infantâ€™s weight and body proportions at birth. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:134-8.
13. Nutrient Requirement and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Indians. A Report of the Expert Group of the Indian Council of Medical Research Final Draft. Vol. 500604. Hyderabad: National Institute of Medical Research; 2009. p. 69.
14. Gopalan C, Sastri BV, Balasubramanian SC. Nutritive value of Indian foods National Institute of Nutrition. Hyderabad: ICMR; 2011.
15. Park K. Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 23rd ed. Jablapur, India: Ms. Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2015. p. 636.
16. Noor N, Kural M, Joshi T, Pandit D, Patil A. A. Study of maternal determinants influencing birth weight of newborn. Arch Med Health Sci 2015;3:239-3.
17. International Institute for Population Sciences: Macro International. National Family Health Survey NFHS-3 2005-06. Vol. 1. India: IIPS; 2007.
18. Deshmukh JS, Motghare DD, Zodpey SP, Wadhva SK. Low birth weight and associated maternal factors in an urban area. Indian Pediatr 1998;35:33-6.
19. Velankar DH. Maternal factors contributing to low birth weight babies in an urban slum community of greater Mumbai. Bombay Hosp J 2009;51:26-5.
20. Negi KS, Kandpal SD, Kukreti M. Epidemiological factors affecting low birth weight. JK Sci J Med Educ Res 2006;8:31-4.
21. Trivedi CR, Mavalankar DV. Epidemiology of low birth weight in Ahmadabad. Ind J Pediatr 1986;53:795-5.
22. Kamaladoss T, Abel R, Sampathkumar V. Epidemiological co-relates of low birth weight in rural Tamil Nadu. Indian J Pediatr 1992;59:299-4.
23. Bisai S. Maternal height as an independent risk factor for neonatal size among adolescent Bengalees in Kolkata. India Ethiop J Health Sci 2010;20:153-8.
24. Temu TB, Masenga G, Obure J, Mosha D, Mahande MJ. Maternal and obstetric risk factors associated with preterm delivery at a referral hospital in northern-eastern Tanzania. Asian Pac J Reprod2016;5:365-70.
25. Mahande MJ, Daltveit AK, Obure J, Mmbaga BT, Masenga G, Manongi R, et al. Recurrence of preterm birth and perinatal mortality in northern Tanzania: Registry-based cohort study. Trop Med Int Health 2013;18:962 7.
26. Watson JD, Weiss HA, Changalucha JM, Todd J, Gumodoka B, Bulmer J, et al. Adverse birth outcomes in United Republic of Tanzania-impact and prevention of maternal risk factors. Bull World Health Organ 2007;85:9-8.
27. Kinney MV, Lawn JE, Howson CP, Belizan J. Million preterm births annually: What has changed this year? Reprod Health 2012;9:28.
28. Metgud CS, Naik VA, Mallapur MD. Factors affecting birth weight of a newborn-A community based study in rural Karnataka, India; 2012. Available from: http://www.Journal plos.org pone 0040040. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul 05].
29. Raman L. Influence of maternal nutritional factors affecting birth-weight. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:775-3.
30. Kennedy ET, Gershoff S, Reed R, Austin JE. Evaluation of the effect of WIC supplemental feeding on birth-weight. J Am Dietic Assoc 1984;80:220-7.
31. Durrani AM, Rani A. Effect of maternal dietary intake on the weight of the newborn in Aligarh city, India Niger Med J 2011;52:177-1.
32. Rao BT, Aggrawal AK, Kumar R. Dietary intake in third trimester of pregnancy and prevalence of LBW. A community-based study in a rural area of Haryana. Indian J Community Med 2007;32: 272-6.
33. Al-Shosan A. Diet history and birth weight relationship. Pak J Med Sci 2007;23:176-1.
34. Khanal V, Zhao Y, Sauer K. Role of antenatal care and iron supplementation during pregnancy in preventing low birth weight in Nepal: Comparison of national surveys 2006 and 2011. Arch Public Health 2014;72:4.
35. Khoushaabi F, Saraswathi G. Association between maternal nutrition status and birth weight of neonates in selected hospitals in Mysore city, India. Pak J Nutr 2010;9:1124-30.
36. Mridula D, Mishra CP, Chakraverty A. Effect of motherâ€™s dietary intake on birth weight of newborn. Indian J Nutr Diet 2002;39:327-2.
37. Gebregzabiherher Y, Haftu A, Weldemariam S, Gebrehiwet H. The prevalence and risk factors for low birth weight among term newborns in Adwa General Hospital. Northern Ethiop Obstet Gynecol Int 2017;2017: Article ID: 2149156, 7.
38. Sengupta P, Sharma N, Benjamin AI. Risk factors for low birth weight. A caseâ€“control study in Ludhiana, Punjab. Indian J Matern Child Health 2009;11:1-4.
39. Mumbare SS, Maindarkar G, Darade R, Yenge S, Tolani MK, Patole K. Maternal risk factors associated with term low birth weight neonates: A matched-pair caseâ€“control study. Indian Pediatr 2012;49:25-8.
40. Singh SD, Shrestha S, Marahatta SB. Incidence and risk factors of low birth weight babies born in Dhulikhel hospital. J Inst Med 2010;32:39 2.
41. Sutan R, Mohtar M, Mahat AN, Tamil AM. Determinant of low birth weight infants -A matched case control study. Open J Prev Med 2014;4:91 9.
42. Ghani AE, Mai H, Demmouche A. Epidemiology of low birth weight in the town of Sidi Bel Abbes (West of Algeria)- A case-control study. J Nutr Food Sci 2014;4:278.
43. Moller B, Gebre-Medhin M, Lindmark G. Maternal weight, weight gain and term in the rural Tanzanian village of Hula. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989;96:158-6.
44. Rizvi SA, Hatcher J, Jehan I, Qureshi R. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight in Karachi: A case control study Estern Mediterranen Health journal 2007; 13(6): 1343-52.
44. Anderson MA. Relationship between maternal nutrition and child growth in rural India [Doctoral Thesis]. Medford, Mass, USA: Tufts University; 1989.
45. Kumar V. Maternal and neonatal factors among low birth weight babies- A tertiary care hospital based study. Curr Pediatr Res 2014;18:73-5.Available from: http://www.currentpediatrics.com.
46. Jayant DD, Phalke DB, Bangal VB, Peeyuusha D, Sushen B. Maternal risk factors for low birth weight neonates: A hospital based case control study in rural area of western Maharashtra, India. Natl J Community Med 2011;2:394-8.
47. Rahman MS, Howlader T, Masud MS, Rahman ML. Association of low-birth weight with malnutrition in children under five years in Bangladesh: Do motherâ€™s education, socio-economic status, and birth interval matter? PLoS ONE 2016;11:e0157814.
48. Kumar GM, Chikkapaih L, Nagayya S. Nutritional analysis of edible wild plants used by Hakki Pikki tribes of Hassan district, Karnataka, India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:390-3.
49. Zrekah G, et al. Determination of protein and fat oxidation levels in imported infant formula available in Syria. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:169-72.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.