EVALUATION OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE BEADS MODIFIED WITH ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ADHATODA VASICA LEAF EXTRACT ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI
Â Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of calcium alginate (Ca-ALG) loaded with ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica (A. vasica) leaves against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Methods: Ca-ALG beads containing ethanolic extract of A. vasica leaves were developed by ionic gelation technique. The prepared Ca-ALG beads were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial effect of A. vasica leaf extract loaded Ca-ALG beads was examined against S. aureus and E. coli.
Results: FT-IR studies revealed the cross-linking of ALG and calcium ions. The spherical morphology of the beads was designated by SEM. The prepared beads were found to display distinctive growth inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli.
Conclusion: The antibacterial activity analysis indicated that the prepared beads have good activity against S. aureus and E. coli. The present study proposes a strategy to enhance antibacterial properties of ALG which are widely used in biomedical applications.
2. Mathew AS, Patel KN, Shah BK. Investigation on antifeedant and anthelmentic potential of Adhatoda vasica nees. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 1998; 14:11-6.
3. Dhuley JN. Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:361-5.
4. Amin AH, Mehta DR. A bronchodilator alkaloid (vasicinone) from Adhatoda vasica nees. Nature 1959;184 Suppl 17:1317.
5. Singh B, Sharma RV. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of pyrroloquinazoline alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica nees. Phytomedicine 2013;20:441-5.
6. Kumar KPS, Bhowmik D, Chiranjib, Tiwari P, Kharel R. Indian traditional herbs Adhatoda vasica and its medicinal application. J Chem Pharm Res 2010;2:240-5.
7. Hamed S, Ayob FA, Alfatama M, Doolaanea AA. Enhancement of the immediate release of paracetamol from alginate beads. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:47-51.
8. Lopes MA, Abrahim-Vieira B, Oliveira C, Fonte P, Souza AM, Lira T, et al. Probing insulin bioactivity in oral nanoparticles produced by ultrasonication-assisted emulsification/internal gelation. Int J Nanomedicine 2015;10:5865-80.
9. Marie Arockianathan P, Sekar S, Sankar S, Kumaran B, Sastry TP. Evaluation of biocomposite films containing alginate and sago starch impregnated with silver nano particles. Carbohydr Polym 2012;90:717-24.
10. Madhavi C, Kumarababu P, Maruthi Y, Parandhama A, Reddy OS, Rao KC, et al. Sodium alginateâ€“locust bean gum IPN hydrogel beads for the controlled delivery of nimesulide-anti-inflammatory drug. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:245-52.
11. Reddy KV, Nagabhushanam MV. Process and parameters affecting drug release performance of prepared cross-linked alginate hydrogel beads for ezetimibe. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:254-62.
12. Paul W, Sharma CP. Chitosan and alginate wound dressing: A short review. Trends Biomater Artif Organs 2004;18:18-23.
13. Boateng JS, Matthews KH, Stevens HNE, Eccleston GM. Wound healing dressings and drug delivery systems: A review. J Pharm Sci 2008;97:2893-923.
14. Singh A, Kumar S, Reddy TJ, Rameshkumar KB, Kumar B. Screening of tricyclic quinazoline alkaloids in the alkaloidal fraction of adhatoda beddomei and Adhatoda vasica leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2015;29:485-96.
15. Pandit K, Langfield RD. Antibacterial activity of some Italian medicinal plant. J Ethano Pharm 2004;82:135-42.
16. Karthikeyan A, Shanthi V, Nagasathaya A. Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial screening of crude extract of the leaf of Adhatoda vasica (L). Int J Green Pharm 2009;3:78-80.
17. Suganya VS, Asheeba ST. Microencapsulation of astaxanthin using ionotropic gelation method isolated from three crab varieties. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2015;7:96-9.
18. Daemi H, Barikani M. Synthesis and characterization of calcium alginate nanoparticles, sodium homopolymannuronate salt and its calcium nanoparticles. Sci Iran 2012;19:2023-8.
19. Patel VK, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H. In vitro study of antimicrobial activity of Adhatoda vasika linn. (leaf extract) on gingival inflammation â€“ a preliminary report. Indian J Med Sci 1984;38:70-2.
20. Gangwar AK, Ghosh AK. Medicinal uses and pharmacological activity of Adhatoda vasica. Int J Herb Med 2014;2:88-91.
21. Bhargava MK, Singh H, Kumar A. Evaluation of Adhatoda vasica as a wound healing agent in buffaloes - Clinical, mechanical and biochemical studies. Indian Vet J 1988;65:33-8.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.