EFFECT OF VITAMIN E ACETATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THYROID HORMONE-SENSITIVE ORGANS FOLLOWING EXOGENOUS L- THYROXINE TREATMENT
Â Objective: L-thyroxine is used for control and prevention of many thyroidal diseases, though it may cause damages in thyroid hormone-sensitive organs, namely, liver and kidney. Reports on the protective effects of any antioxidants in L-thyroxine induced oxidative stress are scanty. Thus, L-thyroxine induced oxidative stress and its prevention by Vitamin E supplementation have been studied in the present investigation.
Methods: Adult, male Wister rats were divided into four groups of six animals each, and L-thyroxine (T4) (0.3 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally in the treated group. Similarly, L-thyroxine (T4), at the above-mentioned dose, and Vitamin E acetate (100 mg/kg of body weight/ day orally) coadministered simultaneously (T4+VE) in the next group. Third group was administered only with Vitamin E, and the remaining group kept as control. Treatment continued regularly for 15 and 30 days. Animals were sacrificed after completion of treatment. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assayed in liver and kidney along with their histology. Obtained results were interpreted statistically against their respective control groups.
Results: Body weight was significantly decreased, and relative kidney weight was increased after L-thyroxine administration as compared to control (p<0.05). LPO level, SOD and catalase activities were significantly enhanced in L-thyroxine treated groups, whereas GPx activity was decreased. However, LPO level and the activities of those enzymes along with body weight and organ weights were almost restored their normal in L-thyroxine and Vitamin E coadministered group treated for 15 days and 30 days, respectively.
Conclusion: Exogenously administered L-thyroxine causes oxidative stress in liver and kidney that in turn generates reactive oxygen species resulting cell damages. Vitamin E acetate supplementation reduces these adverse effects on liver and kidney and thus acts as a beneficial health management agent.
2. Davis PJ, Davis FB. Hyperthyroidism in patients over the age of 60 years. Clinical features in 85 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1974;53:161-81.
3. Sies H. Oxidative stress: Oxidants and antioxidants. Exp Physiol 1997;82:291-5.
4. Brigelius FR, Traber MG. Vitamin E: Function and metabolism. FASEB J 1999;13:1145-55.
5. Reboul E, Richelle M, Perrot E, Desmoulins CM, Pirisi V, Borel P. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E from their main dietary sources. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:8749-55.
6. Herrera E, Barbas C. Vitamin E: Action, metabolism and perspectives. J Physiol Biochem 2001;57:43-56.
7. Packer L, Weber SU, Rimbach G. Molecular aspects of alpha-tocotrienol antioxidant action and cell signalling. J Nutr 2001;131:369S-73S.
8. Bell EF. History of vitamin E in infant nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:183-6.
9. Traber MG, Stevens JF. Vitamins C and E: Beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective. Free Radic Biol Med 2011;51:1000-13.
10. Sarkar D, Chakraborty A, Bhattacharya C, Singh LH, Chandra AK. Exploration of goitrogenic/antithyroidal potentiality of bamboo-shoots in relation to thiourea. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:7-12.
11. Mohamadin AM, Hammad LN, El-Bab MF, Abdel Gawad HS. Attenuation of oxidative stress in plasma and tissues of rats with experimentally induced hyperthyroidism by caffeic acid phenylethyl ester. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100:84-90.
12. Upaganlawar A, Gandhi H, Balaraman R. Effect of vitamin E alone and in combination with lycopene on biochemical and histopathological alterations in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2010;1:24-31.
13. Shaker ME, Houssen ME, Hashem AE, Ibrahim TM. Comparison of vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin in ameliorating carbon tetrachloride and diabetes induced hepatic oxidative stress. J Physiol Biochem 2009;65:225-33.
14. Konopacka M, Widel M, Rzeszowska-Wolny J. Modifying effect of vitamins C, E and beta-carotene against gamma-ray-induced DNA damage in mouse cells. Mutat Res 1998;417:85-94.
15. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxidases in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1989;95:351-8.
16. Buege JA, Aust SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1978;52:302-10.
17. Aebi H. Catalase. In: Bergmeyer HU, editor. Methods in Enzymatic Analysis. New York: Academic Press; 1974. p. 673-8.
18. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974;47:469-74.
19. Paoletti F, Mocali A. Determination of superoxide dismutase activity by purely chemical system based on NAD(P)H oxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990;186:209-20.
20. Ahrens RA. Glutathione peroxidase: A role for selenium (Rotruck 1972). J Nutr 1997;127:1052S-1053S.
21. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75.
22. Fisher RA, Yates R. Statistical Tables for Biological Agricultural and Medical Research. London: Longman Group; 1974.
23. Shinohara R, Mano T, Nagasaka A, Hayashi R, Uchimura K, Nakano I, et al. Lipid peroxidation levels in rat cardiac muscle are affected by age and thyroid status. J Endocrinol 2000;164:97-102.
24. Venditti P, Balestrieri M, Meo SD, Leo TD. Effect of thyroid state on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses and susceptibility to oxidative stress in rat tissues. J Endocrinol 1997;155:151-7.
25. Videla LA. Energy metabolism, thyroid calorigenesis, and oxidative stress: Functional and cytotoxic consequences. Redox Rep 2000;5:265- 75.
26. Guerrero A, Pamplona R, Portero-OtÃn M, Barja G, LÃ³pez-Torres M. Effect of thyroid status on lipid composition and peroxidation in the mouse liver. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26:73-80.
27. Larco DO, Cruthirds DF, Weiser MJ, Handa RJ, Wu TJ. The effect of chronic immobilization stress on leptin signaling in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat. Endocrine 2012;42:717-25.
28. Marti O, Gavalda A, Jolin T, Armario A. Effect of regulatory exposure to chronic immobilization stress on the circadian pattern of pituitary adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone in the adult male rat. Psychoneuroendocrinol 1993;18:67-77.
29. Mansouri E, Panahi M, Ghaffari MA, Ghorbani A. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rat kidney. J Iran Biomed 2011;15:100-6.
30. Chang LT, Kras K, Suzuki K, Strasburg G, Rodger CD, Schemmel RA. Voluntary running in S5B/P1 ras fed high fat or carbohydrate diets. Physiol Behav 1995;57:501-8.
31. BroulÃk PD, Marek J, Schreiber V. The effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on renal and adrenal weight increase in mice. Physiol Res 1991;40:527-32.
32. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group, SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE, Ferris FL 3rd, Gensler G, et al. The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS report no 22. Arch Ophthalmol 2007;125:1225-32.
33. Raha S, Robinson BH. Mitochondria, oxygen free radicals, disease and ageing. Trends Biochem Sci 2000;25:502-8.
34. Ghosh D, Firdaus SB, Mitra E, Dey M, Bandyopadhyay D. Protective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya koenigi against lead induced oxidative stress in rat liver, heart and kidney: A dose response study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:54-8.
35. Georgeson GD, Szony BJ, Streitman K, Varga IS, KovÃ¡cs A, KovÃ¡cs L, et al. Antioxidant enzyme activities are decreased in preterm infants and in neonates born via caesarean section. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002;103:136-9.
36. Sies H. Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Angew Chem Int 1986;25:1058-71.
37. Fernandez V, Llesuy S, Solarl L, Kipreos K, Videla LA, Boveris A. Chemiluminescence and respiratory responses related to thyroid hormone-induced liver oxidative stress. Free Radic Res Commun 1986;5:77-84.
38. Asayama K, Dobashi K, Hayashibe H, Kato K. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockers with different ancillary properties on lipid peroxidation in hyperthyroid rat cardiac muscle. Endocrinol Jpn 1989;36:687-94.
39. Chandra AK, Sinha S, Choudhury SR. Thyroxine induced stress and its possible prevention by catechin. Indian J Exp Biol 2010;48:559-65.
40. Youdim KA, Jooseph JA. A possible emerging role of phytochemicals in improving age-related neurological dysfunction: A multiplicity of effects. Free Rad Biol Med 2001;30:583-94.
41. Machlin LJ, Bendich A. Free radical tissue damage: Protective role of antioxidant nutrients. FASEB J 1987;1:441-5.
42. Halliwell B. Oxidative stress, nutrition and health. Experimental strategies for optimization of nutritional antioxidant intake in humans. Free Radic Res 1996;25:57-74.
43. Senthil JK, Banudevi S, Sharmila M, Murugesan P, Srinivasan N, Balasubramanian K, et al. Effects of vitamin C and E on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced oxidative stress, androgen binding protein and lactate in rat sertoli cells. Reprod Toxicol 2004;19:201-8.
44. Bagchi D, Hassoun EA, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ. Protective effects of antioxidants against endrin-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and excretion of urinary lipid metabolites. Free Radic Biol Med 1993;15:217-22.
45. Chandra AK, Ghosh R, Chatterjee A, Sarkar M. Amelioration of vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and adrenocortical hyperactivity by vitamin E acetate in rats. Mol Cell Biochem 2007;306:189-200.
46. Arthur JR. The glutathione peroxidases. Cell Mol Life Sci 2000;57:1825-35.
47. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 2006;160:1-40.
48. Levy U, Zaltzber H, Ben-Amotz A, Kanter Y, Aviram M. Î²-carotene affects antioxidant status in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Pathophysiology 1999;6:157-61.
49. Chance B, Grenstein DS, Roughton RJ. The mechanism of catalase action 1-steady state analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 1952;37:301-21.
50. Asayama K, Dobashi K, Hayashibe H, Megata Y, Kato K. Lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in thyroid dysfunction in the rat: A possible mechanism of injury to heart and skeletal muscle in hyperthyroidism. Endocrinology 1987;121:2112-8.
51. Zal F, Mostafavi-Pour Z, Amini F, Heidari A. Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on lipid peroxidation and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzyme status in the blood of women consuming oral contraceptives. Contraception 2012;86:62-6.
52. Hoshino E, Shariff R, Van Gossum A, Allard JP, Pichard C, Kurian R, et al. Vitamin E suppresses increased lipid peroxidation in cigarette smokers. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1990;14:300-5.
53. Roskams T, Yang SQ, Koteish A, Durnez A, DeVos R, Huang X, et al. Oxidative stress and oval cell accumulation in mice and humans with alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Pathol 2003;163:1301-11.
54. Kamboj P, Aggarwal M, Puri S, Singla SK. Effect of aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris on oxalate-induced oxidative stress in rats. Indian J Nephrol 2011;21:154-9.
55. Reddy TU, Lakshmi SM, Kumar AC, Prathyusha S, Kumar AD. Protective effect of Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) against acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Innovare J Lif Sci 2013;1:40-3.
56. Chakraborty A, Mondal C, Sinha S, Mandal J, Chandra AK. Amiodarone induced oxidative stress in stress - Vulnerable organs of adult male rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:177-83.
57. Ahmadizadeh M, Baghpa AR. The preventive effect of vitamin E on cadmium chloride induced toxicity in rat liver and kidney. Sci Med J 2008;6:404-13.
58. Sajitha GR, Jose R, Andrews A, Ajantha KG, Augustine P, Augusti KT, et al. Garlic oil and vitamin E prevent the adverse effects of lead acetate and ethanol separately as well as in combination in the drinking water of rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2010;25:280-8.