COMPARISON OF ZIEHL-NEELSEN, KINYOUNâ€™S AND FLUORESCENT STAINING FOR DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES BEFORE AND AFTER PETROFFâ€™S CONCENTRATION TECHNIQUE
Â Objectives: The objectives of the study were to find out the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), Kinyounâ€™s, and (auramine) fluorescent staining and to compare the three staining techniques with and without Petroffâ€™s concentration and to find out the most preferable staining of M. tuberculosis.
Methods: Sputum sample was collected and concentrated by 4% NaOH (Petroffâ€™s concentration). Microscopic examination of the sample was done before concentration and after concentration by ZN staining, Kinyounâ€™s staining, and fluorescent staining (Auramine). Grading of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by three staining was done before and after concentration according to RNTCP guidelines.
Results: Total of 452 sputum samples were collected and subjected to microscopy examination by ZN, Kinyounâ€™s, and fluorescent staining methods to compare the presence or absence of AFB with or without concentration. Among the 452 sputum samples, total of 67 (15.6%) sputum samples were positive for the presence of AFB. Majority 40.3% (n=21) of TB positive patients were observed in the age group 51â€“60 years. The results of Auramine-O staining showed positive diagnoses in 15.9% of the samples; sensitivity was 100% and specificity 95.6%.
Conclusion: The use of fluorescent staining significantly increases the diagnostic value of the smear, particularly where there are low-density bacilli which may escape detection on ZN stained smears.
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