EFFECT OF MANGOSTEEN EXTRACT ON NEUROINFLAMMATION IN RAT MODEL OF ACUTE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major health problems regarding morbidity and mortality, especially in productive ages. Following primary injury, there is a secondary insult, resulting in oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cell death. Mangosteen is a powerful natural antioxidant and anti-inflammation that also has neuroprotective property. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of mangosteen extract (ME)on neuroinflammation following TBI.
Methods: A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three treatments group, i.e., sham-operated controls, closed head injury (CHI), and treatment group. In the treatment group, we gave ME once daily every day after CHI for 7 days. As oxidative process marker, we investigated malondialdehyde (MDA) expression. As neuroinflammation marker, we investigated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD-68.
Results: TBI increased the expression of GFAP and CD-68, but not MDA. There was significant GFAP expression difference between treatment group and CHI group. Regarding the expression of CD-68 and MDA, there was no significant difference between treatment and CHI group.
Conclusion: Mangosteen extract supplementation decreased GFAP expression significantly after TBI.
2. Rondina C, Videtta W, Petroni G, Lujan S, Schoon P, Mori LB, et al. Mortality and morbidity from moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in Argentina. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2005;20:368-76.
3. Thurman DJ, Alverson C, Dunn KA, Guerrero J, Sniezek JE. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: A public health perspective. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1999;14:602-15.
4. Blennow K, Hardy J, Zetterberg H. The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury. Neuron 2012;76:886-99.
5. Corps KN, Roth TL, McGavern DB. Inflammation and neuroprotection in traumatic brain injury. JAMA Neurol 2015;72:355-62.
6. Simon DW, McGeachy MJ, Bay?r H, Clark RS, Loane DJ, Kochanek PM, et al. The far-reaching scope of neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol 2017;13:171-91.
7. Roy S, Aqasthi H. Herbal medicines as neuroprotective agent: A mechanistic approach. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:1-7.
8. Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez- Rojas JM. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:3227-39.
9. Nava Catorce M, Acero G, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Fragoso G, Govezensky T, Gevorkian G, et al. Alpha-mangostin attenuates brain inflammation induced by peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration in C57BL/6J mice. J Neuroimmunol 2016;297:20-7.
10. Sairazi NM, Sirajudeen KN, Muzaimi M, Swamy M, Asari MA, Sulaiman SA. Tualang honey attenuates kainic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat cerebellum and brainstem. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:155-62.
11. Feeney DM, Boyeson MG, Linn RT, Murray HM, Dail WG. Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat. Brain Res 1981;211:67-77.
12. Bains M, Hall ED. Antioxidant therapies in traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. Biochim Biophys Acta 2012;1822:675-84.
13. Dharmaratne HR, Piyasena KG, Tennakoon SB. Ageranylated biphenyl derivative from Garcinia malvgostana. Nat Prod Res 2005;19:239-43.
14. Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chuang CC, Overman A, Martinez K, Kennedy A, et al. Xanthones from mangosteen inhibit inflammation in human macrophages and in human adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. J Nutr 2010;140:842-7.
15. Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Chuang CC, West T, Kennedy A, et al. Xanthones from mangosteen prevent lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr 2009;139:1185-91.
16. Leewanich P, Suksamram S. Xanthones isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen inhibit neurotransmitter receptors expressed in xenopus oocytes. J Med Assoc Thai 2015;98 Suppl 10:S118-23.
17. Sofroniew MV. Astrogliosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2014;7:a020420.
18. Huang HJ, Chen WL, Hsieh RH, Li HM. Multifunctional effects of mangosteen pericarp on cognition in C57BL/6J and triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:813672.
19. Draper HH, Hadley M. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990;186:421-31.
20. Dalle-Donne I, Rossi R, Colombo R, Giustarini D, Milzani A. Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clin Chem 2006;52:601-23.
21. Zotova E, Bharambe V, Cheaveau M, Morgan W, Holmes C, Harris S, et al. Inflammatory components in human Alzheimer’s disease and after active amyloid-?42 immunization. Brain 2013;136:2677-96.
22. Hendrickx DA, van Eden CG, Schuurman KG, Hamann J, Huitinga I. Staining of HLA-DR, iba1 and CD68 in human microglia reveals partially overlapping expression depending on cellular morphology and pathology. J Neuroimmunol 2017;309:12-22.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.