EFFECT OF MANGOSTEEN EXTRACT ON NEUROINFLAMMATION IN RAT MODEL OF ACUTE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
Keywords:Mangosteen extract, Traumatic brain injury, Neuroinflammation
Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major health problems regarding morbidity and mortality, especially in productive ages. Following primary injury, there is a secondary insult, resulting in oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cell death. Mangosteen is a powerful natural antioxidant and anti-inflammation that also has neuroprotective property. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of mangosteen extract (ME)on neuroinflammation following TBI.
Methods: A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three treatments group, i.e., sham-operated controls, closed head injury (CHI), and treatment group. In the treatment group, we gave ME once daily every day after CHI for 7 days. As oxidative process marker, we investigated malondialdehyde (MDA) expression. As neuroinflammation marker, we investigated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD-68.
Results: TBI increased the expression of GFAP and CD-68, but not MDA. There was significant GFAP expression difference between treatment group and CHI group. Regarding the expression of CD-68 and MDA, there was no significant difference between treatment and CHI group.
Conclusion: Mangosteen extract supplementation decreased GFAP expression significantly after TBI.
Taylor CA, Bell JM, Breiding MJ, Xu L. Traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths-United States, 2007 and 2013. MMWR Surveill Summ 2017;66:1-6.
Rondina C, Videtta W, Petroni G, Lujan S, Schoon P, Mori LB, et al. Mortality and morbidity from moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in Argentina. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2005;20:368-76.
Thurman DJ, Alverson C, Dunn KA, Guerrero J, Sniezek JE. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: A public health perspective. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1999;14:602-15.
Blennow K, Hardy J, Zetterberg H. The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury. Neuron 2012;76:886-99.
Corps KN, Roth TL, McGavern DB. Inflammation and neuroprotection in traumatic brain injury. JAMA Neurol 2015;72:355-62.
Simon DW, McGeachy MJ, Bayır H, Clark RS, Loane DJ, Kochanek PM, et al. The far-reaching scope of neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol 2017;13:171-91.
Roy S, Aqasthi H. Herbal medicines as neuroprotective agent: A mechanistic approach. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:1-7.
Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez- Rojas JM. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:3227-39.
Nava Catorce M, Acero G, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Fragoso G, Govezensky T, Gevorkian G, et al. Alpha-mangostin attenuates brain inflammation induced by peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration in C57BL/6J mice. J Neuroimmunol 2016;297:20-7.
Sairazi NM, Sirajudeen KN, Muzaimi M, Swamy M, Asari MA, Sulaiman SA. Tualang honey attenuates kainic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat cerebellum and brainstem. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:155-62.
Feeney DM, Boyeson MG, Linn RT, Murray HM, Dail WG. Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat. Brain Res 1981;211:67-77.
Bains M, Hall ED. Antioxidant therapies in traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. Biochim Biophys Acta 2012;1822:675-84.
Dharmaratne HR, Piyasena KG, Tennakoon SB. Ageranylated biphenyl derivative from Garcinia malvgostana. Nat Prod Res 2005;19:239-43.
Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chuang CC, Overman A, Martinez K, Kennedy A, et al. Xanthones from mangosteen inhibit inflammation in human macrophages and in human adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. J Nutr 2010;140:842-7.
Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Chuang CC, West T, Kennedy A, et al. Xanthones from mangosteen prevent lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr 2009;139:1185-91.
Leewanich P, Suksamram S. Xanthones isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen inhibit neurotransmitter receptors expressed in xenopus oocytes. J Med Assoc Thai 2015;98 Suppl 10:S118-23.
Sofroniew MV. Astrogliosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2014;7:a020420.
Huang HJ, Chen WL, Hsieh RH, Li HM. Multifunctional effects of mangosteen pericarp on cognition in C57BL/6J and triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:813672.
Draper HH, Hadley M. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990;186:421-31.
Dalle-Donne I, Rossi R, Colombo R, Giustarini D, Milzani A. Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clin Chem 2006;52:601-23.
Zotova E, Bharambe V, Cheaveau M, Morgan W, Holmes C, Harris S, et al. Inflammatory components in human Alzheimer’s disease and after active amyloid-β42 immunization. Brain 2013;136:2677-96.
Hendrickx DA, van Eden CG, Schuurman KG, Hamann J, Huitinga I. Staining of HLA-DR, iba1 and CD68 in human microglia reveals partially overlapping expression depending on cellular morphology and pathology. J Neuroimmunol 2017;309:12-22.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.