• Wrood S Al-khfajy Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4451-8939
  • Ghadeer Kadhum Baiee Babel Health Directorate, Forensic division, Drugs and Poison Unit, Iraq.
  • Inam Sameh Arif Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.




Cadmium, Hearing loss, Lead, Environmental toxicology, Pure-tone audiometry


Objectives: We examined the relations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing impairments in the Iraqi people.

Methods: We analyzed data from 51 individual 13–75 ages who had been randomly dispensed to the audiometry examination center at Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital (Babel) for each Iraqi civilian who said, I suffering from the hearing problem.†Pure-tone average (PTA) of auditory thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz was calculated, and hearing impairment was described as a PTA >25 dB in either ear.

Results: All patients who suffer from hearing impairment have serum lead level (23.14±1.76 μg/dL), which is a significantly elevated in comparison to control group (21.20±2.08 μg/dL). In addition to lead, the blood level of cadmium in people with hearing impairment was showed a significant elevation (0.28±0.05 μg/dL) in comparison to normal people (0.22±0.03 μg/dL). In general, this elevation remains within normal reference for the blood level of cadmium (0.5 μg/dL).

Conclusions: The present study revealed that the environmental and occupational cadmium and lead coexposures lead to a significant elevation in the blood level of these metals and could have an essential part in the progression of hearing loss.


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How to Cite

Al-khfajy, W. S., G. K. Baiee, and I. S. Arif. “ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO LOW LEVEL OF CADMIUM AND LEAD AND HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN IRAQI PATIENTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 11, no. 7, July 2018, pp. 512-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i7.26235.



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