EVALUATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ACACIA CAESIA (L.) WILLD. AGAINST HELA CELL LINE
Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the bioactive compounds of the ethanolic leaf extract of Acacia caesia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method and also screen the in vitro cytotoxic activity against HeLa-E 72 cancer cell line.
Methods: The present research was carried out using GC-MS analysis, while mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract were matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Wiley library. Cytotoxicity was assessed with 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cellular morphological alterations were studied using phase contrast inverted light microscope of 400Ã—. The ethanol extract of A. caesia was screened for their cytotoxicity at different concentrations (12.5â€“200 Î¼g/ml), to determine the mean percentage (%) cell viability.
Results: The results of GC/MS analysis showed the presence of 41 major compounds. In terms of percentage amounts, 1,8-diphenyl-3,4,10,11- tetrahydro[1,4]dioxino[2,3-g:5,6-gâ€™]diisoquinoline, 6-(chloromethyl)-4-(3,4-dimethoxy-2-(phenylmethoxy)-phenyl)-3-methyl-2-yridinecarboxylate, and 2â€™,4â€™,6â€™-Trinitro-5â€™-phenyl-1,1â€™:3â€™,1â€-terphenyl were predominant in the extract and have the property of antioxidant, antidepressant potential, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic, diabetic, and induced brain activity. The results of cytotoxicity at highest concentration (200 Î¼g/ml) of the cells became rounder, shrunken and showed signs of detachment from the surface of the wells denoting cell death.
Conclusions: From this study, it is obvious that A. caesia leaf extracts contain various bioactive constituents with a wide range of medicinal properties which is used to treat multiple disorders and it also gives a detailed insight about the phytochemical profile which could be exploited for the development of plant-based drugs. Further, the ethanolic extract of A. caesia exhibits potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa-E 72 cell line.
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