• Sanad M Al Sobeai Department of , Sajir College of Arts and Science, Shaqra University, Shaqra, Saudi Arabia.


Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer, cytotoxic effect of Tamarix aphylla, and antibacterial effectiveness against 10 pathogenic bacteria that cause common and sometimes serious infections in human and animals.

Methods: T. aphylla fresh and disease-free leaves were collected from the different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. The anticancer, cytotoxic effect of T. aphylla leaves, and antibacterial screening efficiency against multidrug-resistant human pathogens were investigated in vitro using Vero cells as a normal cells and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma cells).

Results: T. aphylla leaf extracts exhibited a low cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line at high concentration, with an 50% cytotoxicity concentration value of >1000 μg/ml. The methanolic extract inhibited MCF-7 cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The methanol and ethanol extracts showed antibacterial activity with variable inhibition effects and differences in their activities against tested pathogenic bacteria ranging from very high inhibition (20.7±1.3 mm) to low (4±0.6 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol and ethanol results showed no significant differences.

Conclusions: The findings of this study conclude that the T. aphylla leaf extract had lower toxicity on normal cell line (low toxic plant) and significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells. T. aphylla has potential antibacterial biomolecules against multidrug-resistant human pathogens.

Keywords: Tamarix aphylla, Leaves, Cytotoxic activity, African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) and breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7), Anticancer effect, antibacterial.


1. Sharif M, Banik GR. Status and utilization of medicinal plants in Rangamati of Bangladesh. Res J Agric Biol Sci 2006;2:268-73.
2. Belayachi L, Aceves-Luquero C, Merghoub N, De Mattos SF, Amzazi S, Villalonga P, et al. Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by Ormenis Eriolepis a Morrocan endemic plant in various human cancer cell lines. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2017;14:356-73.
3. Bapat UC, Mhapsekar DR. Phytochemical investigations and antimicrobial and anticancer activities of Homonoia riparia lour. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:237-43.
4. Banala M, Kagithoju S, Pamulaparthi A, Edara C, Nanna R. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf, seed, root, pod and flower extracts of Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:265-8.
5. Doughari JH, Manzara AM. Studies on the antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L. Afr J Microbiol Res 2007;14:37-41.
6. Doughari JH, Obidah JS. Antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of leptadenia lancifolia against some pathogenic bacteria. Pharmacol Oniline 2008;180:172-80.
7. Hannan A, Asghar S, Naeem T, Ullah MI, Ahmed I, Aneela S, et al. Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Pak J Pharm Sci 2013;26:715-9.
8. Doughari JH, Manzara S. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude leaf extracts of Mangifera indica Linn. Afr J Microbiol Res 2008;2:67-72.
9. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015;136:359-86.
10. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics for hispanics/ latinos, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;62:283-98.
11. Amin AR, Kucuk O, Khuri FR, Shin DM. Perspectives for cancer prevention with natural compounds. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:2712-25.
12. Abaza MS, Afzal M, Al-Attiyah RJ, Guleri R. Methylferulate from Tamarix aucheriana inhibits growth and enhances chemosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells: Possible mechanism of action. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:384.
13. Rasul A, Millimouno FM, Eltayb WA, Ali M, Li J, Li X. Pinocembrin: A novel natural compound with versatile pharmacological and biological activities. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:379850.
14. Dall’Acqua S. Natural products as antimitotic agents. Curr Top Med Chem 2014;14:2272-85.
15. Forssten S, Ibrahim F. The elderly intestinal microbiota: Opportunities for probiotics. J Microb Biochem Technol 2011;9:1-5.
16. Abouzid S, Sleem A. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Tamarix nilotica flowers. Pharm Biol 2011;49:392-5.
17. Bakr RO, Abd M, El-Raey E, Ashour RS. Phenolic content, radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) bunge growing in Egypt. J Pharmacog Phytother 2013;5:47-52.
18. Orabi MA, Taniguchi S, Sakagami H, Yoshimura M, Amakura Y, Hatano T. Hydrolyzable tannins of tamaricaceous plants. 7.1 structures and cytotoxic properties of oligomeric ellagitannins from leaves of Tamarix nilotica and cultured tissues of Tamarix tetrandra. J Nat Prod 2016;79:984-95.
19. Swaminathan C. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Indigofera tinctoria L. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:136-8.
20. Gawade B, Farooqui M. Screening of phytochemicals and in vitro antidiabetic activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam. leaves. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:190-3.
21. Abdul L, Haitham MA, Moawia EH, Saud AR, Fahad NA. Medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia and Indonesia: In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation on Vero and HEp-2 cells. J Med Plants Res 2014;8:1065-73.
22. Marasini BP, Baral P, Aryal P, Ghimire KR, Neupane S, Dahal N, et al. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against human pathogenic bacteria. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:1-6.
23. Pérez C, Anesini C. In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;44:41-6.
24. Ajaiyeoba EO, Onocha PA, Nwozo SO, Sama W. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity evaluation of Buchholzia coriacea stem bark. Fitoterapia 2003;74:706-9.
25. Sandle T. Novel methods to address antimicrobial resistance. SOJ Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;2:1-2.
26. Sehrawat A, Sultana S. Evaluation of possible mechanisms of protective role of Tamarix gallica against DEN initiated and 2-AAF promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male wistar rats. Life Sci 2006;79:1456-65.
27. Behera SK, Misra MK. Indigenous phytotherapy for genito-urinary diseases used by the Kandha tribe of Orissa, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;102:319-25.
28. Bylka W, Szaufer-Hajdrych M, Matlawska I, Goslinska O. Antimicrobial activity of isocytisoside and extracts of Aquilegia vulgaris L. Lett Appl Microbiol 2004;39:93-7.
29. Palombo EA, Semple SJ. Antibacterial activity of traditional Australian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;77:151-7.
30. Chew AL, Jessica JJ, Sasidharan S. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:176-80.
31. Samy RP, Ignacimuthu S. Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by tribals in Western Ghats of India. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;69:63-71.
32. Aziz MH, Kumar R, Ahmad N. Cancer chemoprevention by resveratrol: In vitro and in vivo studies and the underlying mechanisms. Int J Oncol 2003;23:17-28.
33. Boulaaba M, Tsolmon S, Ksouri R, Han J, Kawada K, Smaoui A, et al. Anticancer effect of Tamarix gallica extracts on human colon cancer cells involves Erk1/2 and p38 action on G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Cytotechnology 2013;65:927-36.
34. Orabi MA, Taniguchi S, Yoshimura M, Yoshida T, Kishino K, Sakagami H, et al. Hydrolyzable tannins of tamaricaceous plants. III. Hellinoyl- and macrocyclic-type ellagitannins from Tamarix nilotica. J Nat Prod 2010;73:870-9.
35. Okita K, Sakaida I, Hino K. Current strategies for chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncology 2002;62:24-8.
36. Singh JP, Selvendiran K, Banu SM, Padmavathi R, Sakthisekaran D. Protective role of Apigenin on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense against hepatocarcinogenesis in wistar albino rats. Phytomedicine 2004;11:309-14.
37. Ionescu D, Aldea IM, Bleotu C, Economescu MC, Matei L, Rizea GD, et al. Evaluation of antiviral and cytotoxic activities of Tamarix gallica and Silybum marianum extracts. Farmacia 2014;62:329-40.
38. Khan S, Ullah F, Mahmood T. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Tamarix dioica Roxb. leaves. Turkish J Biol 2013;37:329-35.
39. Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:183-93.
40. Sule WF, Okonko IO, Omo-Ogun S, Nwanze JC, Ojezele MO, Ojezele OJ, et al. Phytochemical properties and in-vitro antifungal activity of Senna alata Linn. crude stem bark extract. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:176-83.
41. Joshi B, Sah GP, Basnet BB, Bhatt MR, Sharma D, Subedi K, et al. Phytochemical extraction and antimicrobial properties of different medicinal plants : Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove), Achyranthes bidentata (Datiwan) and Azadirachta indica (Neem). J Microbiol Antimicrob 2011;3:1-7.
208 Views | 236 Downloads
How to Cite
Al Sobeai, S. M. “ANTICANCER, CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF TAMARIX APHYLLA, AND ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING EFFICIENCY AGAINST MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT HUMAN PATHOGENS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 11, no. 11, Nov. 2018, pp. 241-6, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i11.27309.
Original Article(s)