MERCURY-INDUCED NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEFICIT AND ITS AMELIORATING EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TRAPA BISPINOSA
Keywords:Neurotoxicity, Neuroprotection, Herbal medicine, Mercury, Heavy metal, Neuroprotective plant, Behavior
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of dry fruits of Trapa bispinosa (TB) in alleviating mercury (Hg)-induced neurobehavioral toxicity.
Methods: A total of 36 adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 25â€“30 g were equally divided into six groups, namely Iâ€“VI. Group I received distilled water, Group II received mercuric chloride (1.5 mg/kg), Group III received TB extract low dose (150 mg/kg), Group IV received TB extract high dose (300 mg/kg), Group V received mercuric chloride plus TB extract low dose, and Group VI received mercuric chloride plus TB extract high dose. All the groups received doses orally through oral gavage tube and the treatment lasted for 14 days. The behavioral effects were evaluated with locomotor activity in the open field test (OFT), spatial learning ability and memory in the Morris water maze test (MWM), immobility in Forced swimming test (FST) and anxiety in Elevated plus maze test (EPM).
Result: In the present study, it was observed that Hg-exposed mice significantly decreased the locomotor activity (p<0.001), time spent in open arms (p<0.001), number of open arm entries (p<0.01), number of annulus crossovers (p<0.001) and increased immobility (p<0.001), escape latency (p<0.01), and path length (p<0.001) in mice. The aqueous extract of TB significantly reduced the neurotoxic effects of Hg. The aqueous extract of TB showed to increase the locomotor activity (p<0.01), time spent in open arms (p<0.01), number of open arm entries (p<0.05), and number of annulus crossovers (p<0.001), which was decreased in Hg-exposed mice. TB extract also showed to decrease the immobility (p<0.001), escape latency (p<0.05), and path length (p<0.001) in Hg-fed mice.
Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained from the behavioral study, the present study indicates that mercuric chloride caused neurobehavioral changes which were significantly reversed by the aqueous extract of TB. Thus, TB was found to be effective in ameliorating the neurobehavioral deficit induced by Hg exposure.
Sabarathinam J, Vishnu PV, Gayathri R. Mercury poisoning and management: A systematic review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:8 12.
Bernhoft RA. Mercury toxicity and treatment: A review of the literature. J Environ Public Health 2012;2012:460508.
do Nascimento JL, Oliveira KR, Crespo-Lopez ME, Macchi BM, MauÃ©s LA, Pinheiro Mda C, et al. Methylmercury neurotoxicity & amp; antioxidant defenses. Indian J Med Res 2008;128:373-82.
Pooja S, Vidyasagar GM. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Rajgond Tribes of Haladkeri village in Bidar District, Karnataka, India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:216-20.
Jain SK, Parihar S, Pandey N. Medicinal plants with neuropharmacological properties from Indian origin. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:36-40.
Phukan P, Bawari M, Sengupta M. Promising neuroprotective plants from North-East India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:28-39.
Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. Madras: Vallabh Prakashan; 1999.
Evans WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. Singapore: Harcourt Brace and Company, Asia Pvt Ltd.; 1997.
Siddiqui AA, Ali M. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 1st ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 1997.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. London: Chapman and Hall Ltd; 1973.
Fisher DB. Protein staining of ribboned epon sections for light microscopy. Histochemie 1968;16:92-6.
Sofowora A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd ed. Nigeria: Spectrum Books; 1993.
Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol 1983;54:275-87.
Pardon M, PÃ©rez-Diaz F, Joubert C, Cohen-Salmon C. Age-dependent effects of a chronic ultramild stress procedure on open-field behaviour in B6D2F1 female mice. Physiol Behav 2000;70:7-13.
Porsolt RD, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M. Depression: A new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Nature 1977;266:730-2.
Lister RG. The use of a plus-maze to measure anxiety in the mouse. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1987;92:180-5.
GulyÃ¡s M, Bencsik N, Pusztai S, Liliom H, Schlett K. AnimalTracker: An imageJ-based tracking API to create a customized behaviour analyser program. Neuroinformatics 2016;14:479-81.
Vorhees CV, Williams MT. Morris water maze: Procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory. Nat Protoc 2006;1:848-58.
Petit-Demouliere B, Chenu F, Bourin M. Forced swimming test in mice: A review of antidepressant activity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;177:245-55.
Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Blavet N, Deniel M, Jalfre M. Immobility induced by forced swimming in rats: Effects of agents which modify central catecholamine and serotonin activity. Eur J Pharmacol 1979;57:201-10.
FernÃ¡ndez Espejo E. Structure of the mouse behaviour on the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety. Behav Brain Res 1997;86:105-12.
Morris R. Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 1984;11:47-60.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.