RECENT ADVANCES IN HYDROGELS FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

  • Surojeet Das Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Bio-Sciences and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9672-6142
  • Vivek Kumar Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Bio-Sciences and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Rini Tiwari Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Bio-Sciences and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Leena Singh Institute of Management, Commerce and Economics, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Sachidanand Singh Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Bio-Sciences and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Hydrogels are three-dimensional polymeric network, capable of entrapping substantial amounts of fluids. Hydrogels are formed due to physical or chemical cross-linking in different synthetic and natural polymers. Recently, hydrogels have been receiving much attention for biomedical applications due to their innate structure and compositional similarities to the extracellular matrix. Hydrogels fabricated from naturally derived materials provide an advantage for biomedical applications due to their innate cellular interactions and cellular-mediated biodegradation. Synthetic materials have the advantage of greater tunability when it comes to the properties of hydrogels. There has been considerable progress in recent years in addressing the clinical and pharmacological limitations of hydrogels for biomedical applications. The primary objective of this article is to review the classification of hydrogels based on their physical and chemical characteristics. It also reviews the technologies adopted for hydrogel fabrication and the different applications of hydrogels in the modern era.

Keywords: Hydrogels, Drug delivery, Tissue engineering, Soft materials, Controlled release, Cross-linked networky.

Author Biography

Surojeet Das, Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Bio-Sciences and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Assistant Professor, Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University.

References

1. Kashyap N, Kumar N, Kumar MR. Hydrogels for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2005;22:107- 49.
2. Dill KA. Strengthening biomedicine’s roots. Nature 1999;400:309- 10.
3. Peppas NA, Bures P, Leobandung W, Ichikawa H. Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:27 46.
4. Wichterle O, Lim D. Hydrophilic gels for biological use. Nature 1960;185:117-8.
5. Dumitriu S. Polymeric Biomaterials Revised and Expanded. 2nd ed. New York, Basel: Marcel Dekker; 2002.
6. Iwona G, Helena J. Review: Synthetic polymer hydrogels for biomedical applications. Chem Chem Tech 2010;4:297-304.
7. Peppas NA, Zach HJ, Khademhosseini A, Langer R. Hydrogels in biology and medicine: From molecular principles to bio nanotechnology. Adv Mater 2006;18:1345-60.
8. Huang X, Brazel CS. On the importance and mechanisms of burst release in matrix-controlled drug delivery systems. J Control Rel 2001;73:121- 136.
9. Hoffman AS. Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2002;54:3-12.
10. Hoare TR, Kohane DS. Hydrogels in drug delivery: Progress and challenges. Polymer 2008;49:1993-2007.
11. Baroli B. Hydrogels for tissue engineering and delivery of tissue-inducing substances. J Pharm Sci 2007;96:2197-223.
12. Ganta S, Devalapally H, Shahiwala A, Amiji M. A review of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery. J Control Release 2008;126:187-204.
13. Schmaljohann D. Thermo- and pH-responsive polymers in drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2006;58:1655-70.
14. Peppas NA, Khare AR. Preparation, structure and diffusional behavior of hydrogels in controlled release. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1993;11:1-35.
15. Davis KA, Anseth KS. Controlled release from crosslinked degradable networks. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2002;19:385-423.
16. Lin CC, Metters AT. Hydrogels in controlled release formulations: Network design and mathematical modeling. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2006;58:1379- 408.
17. Chauhan S, Harikumar SL, Kanupriya. Hydrogels: A smart drug delivery system. IJRPC 2012; 2(3):603-614.
18. Nguyen KT, West JL. Photopolymerizable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials 2002;23:4307-14.
19. Carenza M, Caliceti P, Veronese FM, Martellini F, Higac OZ, Yoshida M, et al. Poly (acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester) hydrogels obtained by radiation polymerization for the controlled release of drugs. Rad Phys Chem 2000;57:471-5.
20. Said HM, Alla SG, El-Naggar AW. Synthesis and characterization of novel gels based on carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylic acid prepared by electron beam irradiation. React Funct Polym 2004;61:397-404.
21. Teixeira LS, Feijen J, van Blitterswijk CA, Dijkstra PJ, Karperien M. Enzyme-catalyzed crosslinkable hydrogels: Emerging strategies for tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2012;33:1281-90.
22. Pisano JJ, Finlayson JS, Peyton MP. Cross-link in fibrin polymerized by factor 13: Epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine. Science 1968;160:892-3.
23. Yung CW, Bentley WE, Barbari TA. Diffusion of interleukin-2 from cells overlaid with cytocompatible enzyme-crosslinked gelatin hydrogels. J Biomed Mater Res A 2010;95:25-32.
24. Yung CW, Wu LQ, Tullman JA, Payne GF, Bentley WE, Barbari TA, Transglutaminase crosslinked gelatin as a tissue engineering scaffold. J Biomed Mater Res A 2007;83:1039-46.
25. Yamada K, Chen T, Kumar G, Vesnovsky O, Topoleski LD, Payne GF, et al. Chitosan based water-resistant adhesive. Analogy to mussel glue. Biomacromolecules 2000;1:252-8.
26. Demolliens A, Boucher C, Durocher Y, Jolicoeur M, Buschmann MD, De Crescenzo G, . Tyrosinase-catalyzed synthesis of a universal coil-chitosan bioconjugate for protein immobilization. Bioconjug Chem 2008;19:1849-54.
27. Mosiewicz KA, Johnsson K, Lutolf MP. Phosphopantetheinyl transferase-catalyzed formation of bioactive hydrogels for tissue engineering. J Am Chem Soc 2010;132:5972-4.
28. D’Souza SE, Ginsberg MH, Plow EF. Arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD): A cell adhesion motif. Trends Biochem Sci 1991;16:246-50.
29. Das N. Preparation methods and properties of hydrogel: A review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:112-7.
30. Iwai K, Hanasaki K, Yamamoto M. Fluorescence label studies of thermo-responsive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels. J Lumin 2000;1289:87-9.
31. Grassi M, Sandolo C, Perin D, Coviello T, Lapasin R, Grassi G, et al. Structural characterization of calcium alginate matrices by means of mechanical and release tests. Molecules 2009;14:3003-17.
32. Paleos GA. What are Hydrogels? Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh Plastics Manufacturing; 2012.
33. Pal K, Banthia AK, Majumdar DK. Polymeric hydrogels: Characterization and biomedical applications – A mini review. Des Monomers Polym 2009;12:197-220.
34. Ward MA, Georgiou TK. Thermo responsive polymers for biomedical applications. Polymers 2011;3:1215-42.
35. Ebara M, Kotsuchibashi Y, Narain R, Idota N, Kim YJ, Hoffman JM, et al. Smart Biomaterials. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer NIMS Monographs; 2014. p. 1-7.
36. Vo TN, Kasper FK, Mikos AG. Strategies for controlled delivery of growth factors and cells for bone regeneration. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2012;64:1292-309.
37. Peppas NA. Hydrogels in Medicine and Pharmacy. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1986. p. 180.
38. Taylor SJ, McDonald JW, Sakiyama-Elbert SE. Controlled release of neurotrophin-3 from fibrin gels for spinal cord injury. J Control Release 2008;98:281-94.
39. Lowman AM, Peppas NA. Hydrogels. Encyclopedia Controlled Drug Deliv 1999;1:397-418.
40. Bierbrauer F. Hydrogel Drug Delivery: Diffusion Models. University of Wollongong. Internal Report 2005. Available from: https:// www.e-space.mmu.ac.uk/615529/. [Last retrieved on 2018 May 10].
41. Lowman AM. Smart Pharmaceuticals. Available from: http://www-gateway.vpr.drexel.edu/files/NewEh/htmls/lowman.pdf. [Last retrieved on 2018 May 10].
42. Silva AK, Richard C, Bessodes M, Scherman D, Merten OW. Growth factor delivery approaches in hydrogels. Biomacromolecules 2009;10:9 18.
43. Ratnaparkhi PK, Prajapati VK, Jani GK, Solanki HK. Recent expansions in an emergent novel drug delivery technology: Hydrogel. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;4:678-701.
44. Kishida A, Ikada Y. Hydrogels for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In: Dumitriu S, editor. Polymeric Biomaterials. 2nd ed. Ch. 6. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2002.
45. Brown AS. Hydron for burns. Plast Reconstruct Surg 1981;67:810- 1.
46. Yates DW, Hadfield JM. Clinical experience with a new hydrogel wound dressing. Injury 1984;16:23-4.
47. Myers JA. Delperm: A nontextile wound dressing. Pharm J 1983;230:263.
48. Lee KY, Mooney DJ. Hydrogels for tissue engineering. Chem Rev 2001;101:1869-79.
49. Kumaran P, Gupta A, Sharma S. Synthesis of wound-healing keratin hydrogels using chicken feathers proteins and its properties. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:171-8.
50. Azevedo EP. Chitosan hydrogels for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:8-14.
51. Lim F, Sun AM. Microencapsulated islets as bioartificial endocrine pancreas. Science 1980;210:908-10.
52. Hasan A, Waters R, Roula B, Dana R, Yara S, Alexandre T, et al. Engineered biomaterials to enhance stem cell-based cardiac tissue engineering and therapy. Macromol Biosci 2016;16:958-77.
53. Elisseeff J, McIntosh W, Fu K, Blunk BT, Langer R. Controlled-release of IGF-I and TGF-beta1 in a photopolymerizing hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering. J Orthop Res 2001;19:1098-104.
54. Anseth KS, Burdick JA. New directions in photopolymerizable biomaterials. MRS Bull 2002;27:130-6.
55. Zhang R, Ma PX. Processing of polymer scaffolds: Phase separation. In: Atala A, Lanza RP, editors. Methods of Tissue Engineering. 1st ed. San Diego, California: Academia Press; 2006. p. 715.
56. Darling EM, Athanasiou KA. Biomechanical strategies for articular cartilage regeneration. Ann Biomed Eng 2003;31:1114-24.
57. Baksh D, Yao R, Tuan RS. Comparison of proliferative and multilineage differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord and bone marrow. Stem Cells 2007;25:1384 92.
58. Coleman RM, Case ND, Guldberg RE. Hydrogel effects on bone marrow stromal cell response to chondrogenic growth factors. Biomaterials 2007;28:2077-86.
59. Tan H, Marra KG. Injectable biodegradable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. Materials 2010;3:1746-67.
60. Schlichting KE, Copeland-Johnson TM, Goodman M, Lipert RJ, Prozorov T, Liu X, . Synthesis of a novel photopolymerized nanocomposite hydrogel for treatment of acute mechanical damage to cartilage. Acta Biomater 2011;7:3094-100.
61. Choi JS, Park JS. Design elements of polymeric gene carrier in biomaterials for delivery and targeting of proteins and nucleic acids. In: Mahato RI, editor. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2005. p. 643-62.
62. Lee PY, Li Z, Huang L. Thermosensitive hydrogel as a tgf-beta1 gene delivery vehicle enhances diabetic wound healing. Pharm Res 2003;20:1995-2000.
63. Teder H, Johnsson CJ. The effect of different dosage of degradable starch microsphere (spherex) on the distribution of doxorubicin regionally administered to the rat. Anticancer Res 1993;13:2161-4.
64. Lapidus RG, Dang W, Rosen DM, Gady AM, Zabelinka Y, O’Meally R, . Anti-tumor effect of combination therapy with intratumoral controlled-release paclitaxel (PACLIMER microspheres) and radiation. Prostate 2004;58:291-8.
65. Safran H, Akerman P, Cioffi W, Gaissert H, Joseph P, King T, . Paclitaxel and concurrent radiation therapy for locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, stomach, and gastroesophageal junction. Semin Radiat Oncol 1999;9:53-7.
66. Mawad D, Boughton EA, Boughton P, Lauto A. Advances in hydrogels applied to degenerative diseases. Curr Pharm Des 2012;18:2558 75.
67. Kuang M, Wang D, Bao H, Gao M, Mohwald H, Jiang M. Fabrication of multicolor-encoded microspheres by tagging semiconductor nanocrystals to hydrogel spheres. Adv Mat 2005;17:267-70.
68. Azhdarinia A, Yang DJ, Yu DF, Mendez R, Oh C, Kohanim S, . Regional radiochemotherapy using in situ hydrogel. Pharm Res 2005;22:776 83.
69. Qu X, Weinberger J. Deposition of (90)YPO(4) and (144)CePO(4) radioisotopes on polymer surfaces for radiation delivery devices. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;63:98-105.
70. Koh WG, Revzin A, Simonian A, Reeves T, Pishko M. Control of mammalian cell and bacteria adhesion substrates micro patterned on PEG hydrogels. Biomed Microdevices 2003;5:9-11.
71. Jon SY, Seong JH, Khademhosseini A, Tran TN, Laibinis PE, Langer R. Construction of nonbiofouling surfaces by polymeric self-assembled monolayers. Langmuir 2003;19:9989-93.
72. Khademhosseini S, Jon SY, Tran TN, Eng G, Yeh J, Seong J, Langer R. Direct patterening of protein and cell resistant polymeric monolayers and microstructures. Adv Mater 2004;15:1995-2000.
73. Tang MD, Golden AP, Tien J. Molding of three-dimensional microstructures of gels. J Am Chem Soc 2003;125:12988-9.
74. Suh KY, Khademhosseini A, Yang JM, Eng G, Langer R. Soft lithographic patterning of hyaluronic acid on hydrophilic substrates using molding and printing. Adv Mat 2004;16:584-8.
75. Khademhosseini A, Suh KY, Yang JM, Eng G, Yeh J, Levenberg S, . Layer-by-layer deposition of hyaluronic acid and poly-L-lysine for patterned cell co-cultures. Biomaterials 2004;25:3583-92.
76. Bashir R, Hilt JZ, Elibol O, Gupta A, Peppas NA. Micromechanical cantilever as an ultrasensitive pH microsensor. App Phy Let 2002;81:3091-92.
77. Hilt JZ, Gupta A, Bashir R, Peppas NA. Ultrasensitive biomems sensors based on microcantilevers patterned with environmentally responsive hydrogels. Biomed Microdevices 2003;5:177-84.
78. Holtz JH, Asher SA. Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials. Nature 1997;389:829-32.
79. Gupta S, Samanta MK, Raichur AM. Dual-drug delivery system based on in situ gel-forming nanosuspension of forskolin to enhance antiglaucoma efficacy. AAPS PharmSciTech 2010;11:322-35.
80. Burstein NL. Corneal cytotoxicity of topically applied drugs, vehicles and preservatives. Surv Ophthalmol 1980;25:15-30.
81. Gaudana R, Jwala J, Boddu SH, Mitra AK. Recent perspectives in ocular drug delivery. Pharm Res 2009;26:1197-216.
82. Xinming L, Yingde C, Lloyd AW, Mikhalovsky SV, Sandeman SR, Howel CA,et al. Polymeric hydrogels for novel contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery systems: A review. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008;31:57- 64.
83. Tranoudis I, Efron N. Water properties of soft contact lens materials. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2004;27:193-208.
84. Hu X, Hao L, Wang H, Yang X, Zhang G, Wang G, et al. Hydrogel contact lens for extended delivery of ophthalmic drugs. Int J Polymer Sci 2011;2011:1-9.
85. Singh K, Nair AB, Kumar A, Kumria R. Novel approaches in formulation and drug delivery using contact lenses. J B Clin Pharm 2011;2:87 101.
86. Li C, Chauhan A. Ocular transport model for ophthalmic delivery of timolol through p-HEMA contact lenses. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2007;17:69- 79.
87. Gulsen D, Chauhan A. Dispersion of microemulsion drops in HEMA hydrogel: A potential ophthalmic drug delivery vehicle. Int J Pharm 2005;292:95-117.
88. Gulsen D, Chauhan A. Ophthalmic drug delivery through contact lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45:2342-7.
89. Sharif Makhmalzadeh B, Salimi A, Niroomand A. Loratadine-loaded thermoresponsive hydrogel: Characterization and ex-vivo rabbit cornea permeability studies. Iran J Pharm Res 2018;17:460-9.
90. Sri B, Ashok V, Arkendu C. As a review on hydrogels as drug delivery in the pharmaceutical field. Int J Pharm Chem Sci 2012;1:642-61.
91. Pakulska MM, Ballios BG, Shoichet MS. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy. Biomed Mater 2012;7:024101.
92. Maherani B, Arab-Tehrany E, Mozafari MR, Gaiani C, Linder M. Liposomes: A review of manufacturing techniques and targeting strategies. Curr Nanosci 2011;7:436-52.
93. Lee H, McKeon RJ, Bellamkonda RV. Sustained delivery of thermostabilized chABC enhances axonal sprouting and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:3340-5.
94. Lampe KJ, Kern DS, Mahoney MJ, Bjugstad KB. The administration of BDNF and GDNF to the brain via PLGA microparticles patterned within a degradable PEG-based hydrogel: Protein distribution and the glial response J Biomed Mater Res A 2011;96:595-607.
95. Baumann MD, Kang CE, Tator CH, Shoichet MS. Intrathecal delivery of a polymeric nanocomposite hydrogel after spinal cord injury. Biomaterials 2010;31:7631-9.
96. Ali A, Ahmed S. Recent advances in edible polymer based hydrogels as a sustainable alternative to conventional polymers. J Agric Food Chem 2018;66:6940-67.
97. Johl SS, Burgett RA. Dermal filler agents: A practical review. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2006;17:471-9.
98. Sahoo S, Chung C, Khetan S, Burdick JA. Hydrolytically degradable hyaluronic acid hydrogels with controlled temporal structures. Biomacromolecules 2008;9:1088-92.
99. Gil ES, Hudson SM. Stimuli-responsive polymers and their bioconjugates. Prog Polym Sci 2004;29:1173-222.
100. Rzaev ZM, Dincer S, Piskin E. Functional copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide for bioengineering applications. Prog Polym Sci 2007;32:534-95.
101. Piantino J, Burdick JA, Goldberg D, Langer R, Benowitz LI. An injectable, biodegradable hydrogel for trophic factor delivery enhances axonal rewiring and improves performance after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol 2006;201:359-67.
102. Ríhová B. Immunocompatibility and biocompatibility of cell delivery systems. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2000;42:65-80.
103. Chang TM. Semipermeable microcapsules. Science 1964;146:524-5.
Statistics
150 Views | 237 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
Das, S., V. Kumar, R. Tiwari, L. Singh, and S. Singh. “RECENT ADVANCES IN HYDROGELS FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 11, no. 11, Nov. 2018, pp. 62-68, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i11.27921.
Section
Review Article(s)