AN UPDATED PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW ON GYNURA PROCUMBENS
Nowadays, the use of medicinal plants increased significantly for the aim of producing more effective drugs with fewer side effects. Gynura procumbens (family Asteraceae) is a high value medicinal plant with different properties that are considered less, regardless of having great therapeutic potential in traditional medicine. Many pharmacological studies have established the ability of this plant to exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotection, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, cardioactive, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, etc. The aim of this study was to review the updated phytochemical, pharmacological investigations as well as the traditional and therapeutic uses of G. procumbens. Important and different experimental data have been addressed along with a review of most of the phytochemicals identified in this plant.
2. Keng CL, Yee LS, Pin PL. Micropropagation of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. An important medicinal plant. J Med Plants 2009;3:105-11.
3. Rahman AF, Asad MS. Chemical and biological investigations of the leaves of Gynura procumbens. Int J Biosci 2013;3:36-43.
4. Abidin ZZ, Mohamad WN, Samad M. Optimization of chlorophyll extraction from Gynura procumbens. Malays J Anal Sci 2016;6:1421-8.
5. Tan HL, Chan KG, Pusparajah P, Lee LH, Goh BH. Gynura procumbens: An overview of the biological activities. Front Pharmacol 2016;7:52.
6. Kaewseejan N, Sutthikhum V, Siriamornpun S. Potential of Gynura procumbens Leaves as source of flavonoid-enriched fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity. J Funct Foods 2015;12:120-8.
7. Saeed MA, Meng K, Sadikun A, Murugaiyah V, Asmawi M, Ismail Z. Stability study of Gynura procumbens extracts using high performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Res 2014;8:822-7.
8. Hoe SZ, Lee CN, Mok SL, Kamaruddin MY, Lam SK. Gynura procumbens Merr. Decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels. Clinics 2011;66:143-50.
9. Abrika OS, Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Dieng H, Hussain EA, et al. Effects of extracts and fractions of Gynura procumbens on rat atrial contraction. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2013;6:199-207.
10. Kim J, Lee CW, Kim EK, Lee SJ, Park NH, Kim HS, et al. Inhibition effect of Gynura procumbens extract on UV-B-induced matrix-metalloproteinase expression in human dermal fibroblasts. J Ethnopharmcol 2013;137:427-33.
11. Wan C, Yu Y, Zhou S, Tian S, Cao S. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata Leaves. Pharmacogn Mag 2011;7:101-8.
12. Jegadeeswari P, Daffodil ED, Mohan VR. Quantification of total phenolics, flavonoid and in vitro antioxidant activity of Aristolochia bracteata Retz. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:747-52.
13. Rosidah, Yam MF, Sadikun A, Ahmad M, Akowuah GA, Asmawi MZ, et al. Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynura procumbens. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;123:244-9.
14. Liu W, Yu Y, Yang R, Wan C, Xu B, Cao S, et al. Optimization of total flavonoid compound extraction from Gynura medica Leaf using response surface methodology and chemical composition analysis. Int J Mol Sci 2010;11:4750-63.
15. Choi SI, Park MH, Han JS. Gynura procumbens extract alleviates postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Prev Nutr Food Sci 2016;21:181-6.
16. Saiman MZ, Mustafa NR, Schulte AE, Verpoorte R, Choi YH. Induction, characterization, and NMR-based metabolic profiling of adventitious root cultures from leaf explants of Gynura procumbens. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 2012;109:465-75.
17. Hoe SZ, Lee CN, Mok SL, Kamaruddin MY, Lam SK. Gynura procumbens Merr. Decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels. Clinics 2011;66:143-50.
18. Kaur N, Kumar R, Yam MF, Sadikun A, Sattar AM, Asmawi MZ. Antihypertensive effect of Gynura procumbens water extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2013;6:20-7.
19. Poh TF, Ng HK, Hoe SZ, Lam SK. Gynura procumbens causes vasodilation by inhibiting angiotensin II and enhancing bradykinin actions. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2013;61:378-84.
20. Akmara KK, Mahanem MN. Profertility and antidiabetic properties of Gynura procumbens on streptozotocin induced male rats. AIP Conf Proc 2016;1784:020027.
21. Hamid M, Saufi M, Musaadah NM. Study on antidiabetic properties of Gynura procumbens Merr. In 18 Seminar of the Malaysian Natural Products Society (Kota Kinabalu: Universiti Malaysia Sabah); 2004.
22. Hassan Z, Ahmed M, Yosof P, Naidu S, Kumar G, Umachigi S. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Gynura procumbens. Pharmacologyonline 2008;1:30-50.
23. Lee HW, Hakim P, Rabu A, Sani HA. Antidiabetic effect of Gynura procumbens Leaves extracts involve modulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:796-812.
24. Bohari M, Pauliena S, Hamid M, Shaari K, Lajis N. Glucose uptake: Stimulatory activity of Gynura procumbens in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. In: Malaysian Medicinal Plant: Chemistry and Biological Activity. Sarawak: UNIMAS and Malaysian Natural Products Society; 2006.
25. Hassan Z, Yam MF, Ahmad M, Yusof AP. Antidiabetic properties and mechanism of action of Gynura procumbens water extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Molecules 2010;15:9008-23.
26. Pramono S, Nugroho A. Effect of herbal combination of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f) Ness and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Int Food Res J 2015;22:1332-7.
27. Sunarwidhi AL, Sudarsono S, Nugroho AE. Hypoglycemic effect of combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic extracts standardized by rutin and quercetin in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. Adv Pharm Bull 2014;4:613.
28. Shwter AN, Abdullah NA, Alshawsh MA, Alsalahi A, Hajrezaei M, Almaqrami AA, et al. Chemoprevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci by Gynura procumbens in rats. J Ethnopharm 2014;151:1194-201.
29. Afandi A, Sadikun A, Ismail S. Antioxidant properties of Gynura procumbens extracts and their inhibitory effects on two major human recombinant cytochrome P450s using a high throughout luminescence assay. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:36-41.
30. Ghofur A, Hamid IS, Listyorini D. Anti-carcinogenic activity of Gynura procumbens extract through cytochrome P450 and glutathione stransferase. Int J PharmTech Res 2015;8:24-9.
31. Hamid IS, Wati WK, Mustofa I, Plumeriastuti H. Activity test of Gynura procumbens Leaves extract as antiangiogenic on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Vet Med 2011;4:105-10.
32. Jenie RI, Meiyanto E, Murwanti R. Antiangiogenic effect of Sambung nyawa leaves (Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.) Ethanolic extract on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Indones J Pharm 2006;17:50-5.
33. Hamid I, Dewi R, Nazar D, Ratnani H. Effectivity of Gynura procumbens extract to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression on new blood vessels of chorioallantoismembran (CAM) chicken embryonal. Vet Med 2013;6:27-32.
34. Meiyanto E, Jenie RI. Co-chemotherapy of sambungnyawa (Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.) Leaves ethanolic extract and doxorubicin on breast cancer cell. Indones J Pharm 2007;18:81-7.
35. Nurulita NA, Meiyanto E, Matsuda E, Kawaichi M. Gynura procumbens modulates the microtubules integrity and enhances distinct mechanism on doxorubicin and 5-flurouracil-induced breast cancer cell death. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2012;12:205-18.
36. Nurulita NA, Meiyanto E, Sugiyanto S, Matsuda E, Kawaichi M. The ethyl acetate fraction of Gynura procumbens sensitizes widr colon cancer cell line against 5-fluorouracil but shows antagonism with cisplatin. Int J Phytomed 2011;3:392-405.
37. Rohin MA, Jumli MN, Ridzwan N, Baig AA, Latif AZ, Hadi NA. Effects of Gynura procumbens extracts on anti-proliferative activity and its associated morphological changes of human glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U-87). Pharmacogn J 2018;10:492-6.
38. Jarikasem S, Charuwichitratana S, Siritantikorn S, Chantratita W, Iskander M, Frahm AW, et al. Antiherpetic effects of Gynura procumbens. Evid Based Comp Alt Med 2013;2013:394865.
39. Kaewseejan N, Sutthikhum V, with enhanced antioxidant capacity. J Funct Foods 2015;12:120-8.
40. Nasir NN, Khandaker MM, Mat N. Bioactive compound and therapeutic value of some Malaysia medicinal plants: A review. J Agron 2015;14:319-30.
41. Vejanan V, Latip J, Chin LP, Embi N, Sidek HM. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activities of Gynura procumbens. Sains Malays 2012;41:1535-42.
42. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
43. Zahra AA, Kadir FA, Mahmood AA, Al Hadi AA, Suzy SM, Sabri SZ, et al. Acute toxicity study and wound healing potential of Gynura procumbens Leaf extract in rats. J Med Plant Res 2011;5:2551-8.
44. Dwijayanti DR, Rifa’i M. Immunomodulator testing on ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens Leaves to Mus musculus adaptive immune system: In vitro study. J Exp Life Sci 2014;4:10-4.
45. Dwijayanti DR, Riffs M. Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract promotes lymphocyte activation and regulatory T cell generation in vitro. J Trop Life Sci 2015;5:14-9.
46. Mahmood A, Mariod AA, Al-Bayaty F, Abdel-Wahab SI. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Gynura procumbens Leaf extract against experimentally-induced gastric lesions in rats. J Med Plants Res 2010;4:685-91.
47. Habibipour S, Oswald TM, Zhang F, Joshi P, Zhou XC, Dorsett MW, et al. Effect of sodium diphenylhydantion on skin wound healing in rats. Plast Reconstr Surg 2003;112:1620-7.
48. Shukla A, Rasik AM, Dhawan BN. Asiaticoside-induced elevation of antioxidant levels in healing wounds. Phytother Res 1999;13:50-4.
49. Getie M, Gebre-Mariam T, Rietz R, Neubert RH. Evaluation of the release profiles of flavonoids from topical formulations of the crude extract of the leaves of Dodonea viscosa (Sapindaceae). Pharmazie 2002;57:320-2.
50. Martin A. The use of antioxidants in healing. Dermatol Surg 1996;22:156-60.
51. Akowuah G, Ahmad M, Fei YM. Effects of Gynura procumbens Leaf extracts on plasma lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status in CCl4-treated rats. Nat Prod J 2012;2:247-51.
52. Akowuah GA, Mariam A, Chin JH. The effect of extraction temperature on total phenols and antioxidant activity of Gynura procumbens Leaf. Pharmacogn Mag 2009;4:81-5.
53. Afandi A, Sadikun A, Ismail S. Antioxidant properties of Gynura procumbens extracts and their inhibitory effects on two major human recombinant cytochrome P450s using a high throughout luminescence assay. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:36-41.
54. Maw SS, Mon MM, OO ZK. Study on antioxidant and antitumor activities of some herbal extracts. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2011;75:450-5.
55. Rosidah, Yam M, Sadikun A, Asmawi M. Antioxidant potential of Gynura procumbens. Pharm Biol 2008;46:616-25.
56. Luerang A, Thammasarn K, Sittiwet C, Naowaratwattana W, Chaichanadee S, Puangpronpitag D, et al. Evaluation of nutritional value and antioxidative properties of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens extract. Asian J Plant Sci 2010;9:146-51.
57. Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. Sci World J 2013;2013:16.
58. Krishnan V, Ahmad S, Mahmood M. Antioxidant potential in different parts and callus of Gynura procumbens and different parts of gynura bicolor. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:1-7.
59. Hoe SZ, Lam SK. Hypotensive activity of an aqueous fraction of Gynura procumbens and possible mechanisms of action (hypertension, basic 1 (H), The 69th annual Scientific meeting of the Japanese circulation society). Circ J 2005;69:348.
60. Gofur A, Hamid IS, Listyorini D. Gene p53 mutations after the induction of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and administration of anti-carcinogenesis properties of Gynura procumbens in sprague dawley rats. Biomed Eng 2015;1:53-7.
61. Nisa F, Hermawan A, Murwanti R, Meiyanto E. Antiproliferative effect of Gynura procumbens (lour.) Merr. Leaves etanolic extract on 7,12dimethylbenz(a)antracene induced male rat liver. Adv Pharm Bull 2012;2:99-106.
62. Hamid IS, Meiyanto E, Widyarini S. CYP1A1and GST?expression of hepatocytes induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and the influence of ethanolic extract of Gynura procumbens. Indones J Pharm 2009;20:198-206.
63. Kang YH, Kim TW, Kim KK, Choe M. Effect of Gynura procumbens water extract on enzymes activities related with glucose metabolism in HepG2 cell. FASEB J 2015;29:730.
64. Algieri K, Atangwho IJ, Meng KY, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Murugaiyah V. Antihyperglycaemic and toxicological evaluations of extract and fractions of Gynura procumbens Leaves. Trop Life Sci Res 2014;25:75-93.
65. Algariri K, Meng KY, Atangwho IJ, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Murugaiyah V, et al. Hypoglycemic and anti–hyperglycemic study of Gynura procumbens Leaf extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3:358-66.
66. Akowuah G, Sadikun A, Mariam A. Flavonoid identification and hypoglycaemic studies of the butanol fraction from Gynura procumbens. Pharm Biol 2002;40:405-10.
67. Ashraf K, Sultan S. Comprehensive review on Curcuma longa Linn.: Phytochemical, pharmacological and molecular study: A review. Int J Green Pharm 2017;11:1-15.
68. Ashraf K, Sultan S, Ali SA. Phychemistry, phytochemical, pharmacological and molecular study of Zingiber officinale Roscoe: A review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:8-16.
69. Pujiyanto S, Lestari Y, Suwanto A, Budiarti S, Darusman LK. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity and characterization of endophyticactinomycetes isolated from some Indonesian diabetic medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:327-33.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.