ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF KETOROLAC - A NON-OPIOID ANALGESIC AT GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE
Objectives: The study has been carried to investigate the electro-oxidation mechanism and to develop a selective and sensitive method for determination of ketorolac (KTL), a non-opioid analgesic drug,.
Methods: A simple electro analytical method was used for the determination of ketorolac (KTL) using glassy carbon electrode by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric techniques (DPV). The effect of various experimental parameters such as accumulation time, pH, scan rate, on the voltammetric responses of KTL was evaluated.
Results: In the optimized conditions, variation of peak current with respect to concentration was studied and the calibration curve of the peak current vs. KTL concentration was drawn with a linear range of 10- 350 Î¼M with an excellent detection limit of 8.08Ã—10-8 M. This method was successfully tested for the determination of KTL in pharmaceuticals and human urine samples.
Conclusion: From the results, it was observed that, the selected method is rapid, sensitive and low cost.
2. Gabbot DA, Cohen AM, Mayor AH, Niemiro LA, Thomas TA. Selective detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid by a carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid gel modified electrode. Eur J Anaesth 1997;14:610-5.
3. Lenz H, Raeder J. Comparison of etoricoxib vs. Ketorolac in postoperative pain relief. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008;52:1278-84.
4. Attar M, Schiffman R, Borbridge L, Farnes Q, Welty D. Ocular pharmacokinetics of 0.45% ketorolac tromethamine. Clin Ophthalmol 2010;4:1403-8.
5. Devarajan PV, Gore SP, Chavan SV. HPTLC determination of ketorolac tromethamine. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2000;22:679-83.
6. Salaris M, Nieddu M, Rubattu N, Testa C, Luongo E, Rimoli MG, et al. Acid and base degraded products of ketorolac. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010;52:320-2.
7. Gu L, Chiang H, Johnson D. Light degradation of ketorolac tromethamine. Int J Pharm 1998;41:105-13.
8. Sunil G, Jambulingam M, Thangadurai SA, Kamalakannan D, Sundaraganapathy R, Jothimanivannan C. Development and validation of ketorolac tromethamine in eye drop formulation by RP-HPLC method. Arabian J Chem 2017;10:S928-35.
9. Razzaq SN, Ashfaq M, Khan U, Mariam I. Development and validation of Ketorolac Tromethamine in eye drop formulation by RP-HPLC method. Anal Methods 2012;7:2121-6.
10. Sane RT, Tirodkar VB, Desai AJ, Patel MK, Kulkarni UD. Determination of Ketorolac tromethamine. Indian Drugs 1992;29:489-93.
11. Demircan S, Sayin F, Basci NE, Unlu N, Kir S. Determination of ketorolac tromethamine in human eye samples by HPLC with photo diode-array detection. Chromatographia 2007;66:S135-9.
12. Logan BK, Friel PN, Peterson KL, Predmore DB. Analysis of ketorolac in postmortem blood. J Anal Toxicol 1995;19:61-4.
13. Chaudhary RS, Gangwal SS, Jindal KC, Khanna S. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of ketorolac and its application to bioequivalence studies in human serum. J Chromatogr 1993;614:180-4.
14. Wu AT, Massey IJ. Simultaneous determination of ketorolac and its hydroxylated metabolite in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 1990;534:241-6.
15. Kamath BV, Shivram K, Shah AC. Determination of diclofenac sodium, famotidine and ketorolac tromethamine by flow injection analysis using dichloronitrophenol. J Pharm Biomed Anal 1994;12:343-6.
16. Rezaei B, Zare ZM. Modified glassy carbon electrode with multiwall carbon nanotubes as a voltammetric sensor for determination of leucine in biological and pharmaceutical samples. Anal Lett 2008;41:2267-86.
17. Huang L, Bu L, Zhao F, Zeng B. Voltammetric behavior of ethopropazine and the influence of sodium dodecylsulfate on its accumulation on gold electrodes. J Solid State Electrochem 2004;8:976-81.
18. Ivandini TA, Sarada BV, Terashima C, Rao TN, Tryk DA, Ishiguro H, et al. Electrochemical detection of tricyclic antidepressant drugs by HPLC using highly boron-doped diamond electrodes. J Electroanal Chem 2002;521:117-26.
19. Kissinger PT, Heineman WR, Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1996.
20. Giselle NC, Christiana AP, Karen W, Noemi N. Simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations by square wave voltammetry. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:438-42.
21. Gosser DK. Cyclic Voltammetry: Simulation and Analysis of Reaction Mechanisms. New York: Vancouver Coastal Health; 1993. p. 43.
22. Hassan AM, Hanan ME, Amany MF. Electrochemical and chemometric determination of dorzolamide and timolol in eye drops using modified multiwall carbon nanotube electrode. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;19:43-50.
23. Laviron E. General expression of the linear potential sweep voltammogram in the case of diffusionless electrochemical systems. J Electroanal Chem 1979;101:19-28.
24. Wu Y, Ji X, Hu S. Studies on electrochemical oxidation of azithromycin and its interaction with bovine serum albumin. Bioelectrochemistry 2004;64:91-7.
25. Gu L, Strickley RG. Preformulation salt selection. Physical property comparisons of the tris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM) salts of four analgesic/antiinflammatory agents with the sodium salts and the free acids. Pharm Res 1987;4:255-7.
26. Moses GS, Kumar MS, Ramachandraiah A, Roa KM. Spectral and electrochemical investigations of ketorolac tromethamine. Ind J Chem 2003;42B:159-65.
27. Sturm JC, Canelo H, Nuñez-Vergara LJ, Squella JA. Voltammetric study of ketorolac and its differential pulse polarographic determination in pharmaceuticals. Talanta 1997;44:931-7.
28. Squella JA, Lemus I, Sturm JC, Núñez-Vergara LJ, Voltammetric behaviour of ketorolac and its HPLC-EC determination in tablets. Anal Lett 1997;30:553-64.
29. Tambe VS, Deodhar MN, Prakya V. LC and LC-MS study for simultaneous determination of tramadol hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine in bulk and formulation with their major degradation products. B-FOPCU 2016;54:87-97.
30. Belal TS, El-Kafrawy DS, Mahrous MS, Abdel-Khalek MM, Abo-Gharam AH. Validated spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods for simultaneous determination of ketorolac tromethamine and phenylephrine hydrochloride. Ann Pharm Fr 2016;74:267-82.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.