A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF SCAPULA BY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE MALAYSIAN POPULATION
Objective: Sex estimation is one of the crucial steps for human identification, which is evident in cases of commingled, eroded, and/or missing remains. When pelvis or skull are unavailable, scapula has been used as an alternative bone for determining sex. Besides, the scapula was shown to be population-specific in several studies. Limited dry bone collections in Malaysia have led to various recommendations of virtual anthropology studies of bone in human identification. The aims of this study were to investigate the sexual dimorphism of the scapula using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging and to generate population-specific equations for sex determination in the Malaysian population.
Methods: A total of 66 CT thorax images of 33 males and 33 females were taken. Morphological breadth (MB) and morphological length (ML) on bilateral scapulae were measured on 3D CT reconstructed images. Independent t-test and discriminant function analysis (DFA) were performed for analysis.
Results: Results revealed that both parameters showed sexual dimorphism of scapula but displayed no difference between the right and left scapulae. DFA showed that MB and ML had high accuracy for sex estimation. The equations were highly accurate when both parameters were used in combination, followed by MB only and ML only, in that sequence.
Conclusion: In brief, scapula measurements may be useful for forensic assessment of sex in the Malaysian population.
2. Ali Z, Cox C, Stock MK, van Rilland EE, Rubio A, Fowler DR, et al. Estimating sex using metric analysis of the scapula by postmortem computed tomography. J Forensic Sci 2018;63:1346-9.
3. Krishan K, Chatterjee PM, Kanchan T, Kaur S, Baryah N, Singh RK, et al. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework. Forensic Sci Int 2016;261:165.e1-8.
4. Syngle T, Kaur S, Garg N. Osteoporotic fracture risk in rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Pharm Sci 2018;10:106-9.
5. Steyn M, IÅŸcan MY. Metric sex determination from the pelvis in modern greeks. Forensic Sci Int 2008;179:86.e1-6.
6. Steyn M, IÅŸcan MY. Sex determination from the femur and tibia in South African whites. Forensic Sci Int 1997;90:111-9.
7. Kanz F, Fitzl C, Vlcek A, Frommlet F. Sex estimation using the femur of Austrians born in the 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Anthropol Anz 2015;72:117-27.
8. Case DT, Ross AH. Sex determination from hand and foot bone lengths. J Forensic Sci 2007;52:264-70.
9. Maclaughlin SM, Oldale NM. Vertebral body diameters and sex prediction. Ann Hum Biol 1992;19:285-92.
10. Torimitsu S, Makino Y, Saitoh H, Sakuma A, Ishii N, Yajima D, et al. Sex estimation based on scapula analysis in a Japanese population using multidetector computed tomography. Forensic Sci Int 2016;262:285.e1-5.
11. El Morsi DA, Gaballah G, Mahmoud W, Tawfik AI. Sex determination in Egyptian population from scapula by computed tomography. J Forensic Res 2017;08:8-11.
12. Giurazza F, Schena E, Del Vescovo R, Cazzato RL, Mortato L, Saccomandi P, et al. Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013;2013:1632-5.
13. Papaioannou VA, Kranioti EF, Joveneaux P, Nathena D, Michalodimitrakis M. Sexual dimorphism of the scapula and the clavicle in a contemporary Greek population: Applications in forensic identification. Forensic Sci Int 2012;217:231.e1-7.
14. Peckmann TR, Scott S, Meek S, Mahakkanukrauh P. Sex estimation from the scapula in a contemporary Thai population: Applications for forensic anthropology. Sci Justice 2017;57:270-5.
15. Paulis MG, Samra MF. Estimation of sex from scapular measurements using chest CT in Egyptian population sample. J Forensic Radiol Imaging 2015;3:153-7.
16. Patriquin ML, Steyn M, Loth SR. Metric analysis of sex differences in South African black and white pelves. Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:119-27.
17. Zhang K, Cui JH, Luo YZ, Fan F, Yang M, Li XH, et al. Estimation of stature and sex from scapular measurements by three-dimensional volume-rendering technique using in Chinese. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2016;21:58-63.
18. Dine MM, Hassan HM. Ontogenetic study of the scapula among some Egyptians: Forensic implications in age and sex estimation using multidetector computed tomography. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2016;6:56-77.
19. Ibrahim A, Alias A, Nor FM, Swarhib M, Abu Bakar SN, Das S, et al. Study of sexual dimorphism of Malaysian crania: An important step in identification of the skeletal remains. Anat Cell Biol 2017;50:86-92.
20. Ibrahim A, Alias A, Nor FM, Swarhib M, Das S. Osteometric estimation of sex from mastoid triangle in Malaysian population. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:303-7.
21. Alias A, Ibrahim A, Bakar SN, Rokhani F, Swarhib M, Nor FM. Morphometric analysis of coronoid process of mandible by CT in the Malaysian population : An important step for determination of sex. J Dent Sci Res Ther 2018;5:1-8.
22. Varghese AP, Philip B, Krishnakumar M, Kuriakose F, Rodrigues PA. Assessment of osteoporosis and anaemia risk in patients on anticonvulsant therapy. Int J Pharm Sci 2016;8:404-8.
23. Jamaiyah H, Geeta A, Safiza MN, Khor GL, Wong NF, Kee CC, et al. Reliability, technical error of measurements and validity of length and weight measurements for children under two years old in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia 2010;65 Suppl A:131-7.
24. Perini TA, de Oliveira GL, Ornelia JS, de Oliveira FP. Technical error of measurement in anthropometry. Rev Bras Med Esporte 2005;11:81-5.
25. Dabbs GR, Moore-Jansen PH. A method for estimating sex using metric analysis of the scapula. J Forensic Sci 2010;55:149-52.
26. Hudson A, Peckmann TR, Logar CJ, Meek S. Sex determination in a contemporary Mexican population using the scapula. J Forensic Leg Med 2016;37:91-6.
27. Koukiasa AE, Eliopoulos C, Manolis SK. Biometric sex estimation using the scapula and clavicle in a modern Greek population. Anthropol Anz 2017;74:241-6.
28. Stull KE, Tise ML, Ali Z, Fowler DR. Accuracy and reliability of measurements obtained from computed tomography 3D volume rendered images. Forensic Sci Int 2014;238:133-40.
29. Ulijaszek SJ, Kerr DA. Anthropometric measurement error and the assessment of nutritional status. Br J Nutr 1999;82:165-77.