PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTIONS, QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS, AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN THE LEAF AND STEM BARK OF SOLANUM PUBESCENS WILLD.

  • SUDHAMA VN Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • RAMAKRISHNAN M Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to extract the phytochemicals from leaf and stem bark of Solanum pubescens, perform qualitative analysis, and evaluate antimicrobial activity of the phytochemicals against certain microbial pathogens.


Methods: Leaf and stem bark of S. pubescens was subjected to phytochemical extractions using Soxhlet apparatus with five different solvents, identified the major constituents in different solvent extracts using standard protocols and investigated the potential antimicrobial activities of the extracts against certain selected bacterial and fungal pathogens by agar well diffusion method.


Results: The maximum yield was in methanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of the study plant such as 18.51 and 12.5%, respectively, followed by the hydroalcohol extracts (14.23 and 10.00%). Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed maximum number of extracted bioactive compounds when compared to other similar studies. Among the five different solvent extracts of S. pubescens, n-hexane extract of stem bark was found to be active against all the bacterial pathogens and stem bark extracts made with methanol and hydroalcohol showed antifungal activity against all the four fungal pathogens tested. Leaf extracts made with solvents such as n-hexane and ethyl acetate showed inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, hydroalcohol extract was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium while none of the leaf extracts of the study plant showed inhibition zones against fungal pathogens tested.


Conclusion: Multiple solvent extraction approach yielded the phytochemicals which are not yet reported and the antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals acknowledged their medicinal value.

Keywords: Solanum pubescens, Chitradurga district, Phytochemicals, Antimicrobial.

Author Biography

SUDHAMA VN, Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

School of Engineering

References

1 Kumari GN, Rao LJ, Rao NS. Flavonol 3-0-methyl ethers from Solanum pubescens. J Nat Prod 1985;48:149-50.
2 Reddy KN, Reddy CS, Trimurthulu G. Ethnobotanical survey on respiratory disorders in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;10:139-48.
3 Hemamalini K, Krishna VR, Bhargav A, Reddy UV. Hepato protective activity of Tabebuia rosea and Solanum pubescens against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:4.
4 Niyogi P, Raju NJ, Reddy PG, Rao BG. Formulation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum pubescens Wild extracts gel on albino wister rats. Int J Pharm 2012;2:484-90.
5 Hemamalini K, Bhargav A. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Solanum pubescens Willd. Int J Pharmacol Toxicol 2013;3:43-5.
6 Sumalataha P, Hemamalini K, Shwetha R, Reddy UV. Antinociceptive screening of methanol extract of Solanum pubescens. Phytomedicine 2013;4:149-51.
7 Rahman H, Mahmood R, Nazeen MH. Phytochemical analysis of Solanum pubescens. Kuvempu Univ Sci J 2012;5:71-9.
8 Kiranmai AS, Hemamalini K, Reddy UV. Anticonvulsant and sedative effects of leaf extract of Solanum pubescens. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013;4:1424-7.
9 Rahman H, Mahmood R, Rahman N, Haris M. Antibacterial activity of Solanum pubescens an ethnomedicinal plant from south western region of Andhra Pradesh. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol 2014;2:501-9.
10 Ayyadurai V, Ramar K. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic leaves extract of Solanum pubescens Willd. Imp J Interdiscip Res 2017;3:1746-9.
11 Rahman H, Mahmood R, Haris M, Rahman N. Phytochemical profiling of successive extracts of fruit and stem bark of Solanum pubescens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:147-53.
12 Iwu MM, Duncan AR, Okunji CO. New Antimicrobials of plant origin. In: Janick J, editor. Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. Alexandria: ASHS Press; 1999. p. 457-62.
13 Motsei ML, Lindsey KL, Van Staden J, Jaeger AK. Screening of traditionally used South African plants for anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;86:235-41.
14 Barbour EK, Al Sharif M, Sagherian VK, Habre AN, Talhouk RS, Talhouk SN. Screening of selected indigenous plants of Lebanon for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93:1-7.
15 Mahesh B, Satish S. Antimicrobial activity of some important medicinal plant against plant and human pathogens. World J Agric Sci 2008;4:839-43.
16 Shashikant VB, Deshmane BJ, Dangare SC, Suraj T. Anticovulsant activities of some novel 3-[5-substituted 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-yl]-2-styryl quinazoline-4(3h)-ones. Pharmacol Online 2008;2:604-13.
17 Naidoo VV. An antimicrobial investigation of plants used traditionally in southern Africa to treat sexually transmitted infections. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;130:552-8.
18 Phytographia: 5. t. 3. (1794) FBI 4: 230, Gamble, 2, 936, (1883).
19 Sofowara A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd ed. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books, Ltd.; 1993. p. 150-6.
20 Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods, A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 2nd ed. London, New York: Chapman and Hall, Ltd.; 1973. p. 49-188.
21 Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 14th ed., Vol. 9. Singapore: W. B. Saunders Co. Ltd.; 1996. p. 713-34.
22 Evans WC. Pharmacology. Asia, Singapore: Harcourt Brace and Company; 1997. p. 226-8.
23 Yasuma A, Ichikawa T, A new histo chemical staining method for protein. J Lab Clin Med 1953;41:296-9.
24 Brain KR, Turner TD. The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals. 2nd ed. Bristol: Wright Scientechnica; 1975. p. 81-2.
25 Kumar BT, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. Int Pharm Sci 2011;1:98-106.
26 Raman N, Phytochemical Techniques. New Delhi: New Indian Publishing Agency; 2006. p. 19.
27 Whistler RL, Bemiller JN. Industrial Gums: Polysaccharides and Their Derivatives. San Diego: Academic press; 1993. p. 318-37.
28 Trease GE, Evans MD. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 13th ed. London: Bailliere Tindall; 1989. p. 176-80.
29 Gorbach SL, Anaerobic bacteriology for clinical laboratories. Pharmacognosy 1963;23:89-91.
30 Kumar A, Ilavarasan R, Jayachandran T, Decaraman M, Aravindhan P, Padmanaban N, et al. Phyto chemical investigation on a tropical plant, Syzygium cumini from Kuttuppalayam, Erode district, Tamil Nadu, South India. Pak J Nutr 2009;8:83-5.
31 Sofowara A. Medical Plants and Traditional Medicines in Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Book Ltd.; 1993. p. 191-289.
32 Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods a Guide to Modern Techniques of Plants analysis. Netherlands: Springer; 1998. p. 1-26.
33 Jayadev S, Bird TD. Hereditary ataxias: Over view. Genet Med 2013;15:673-83.
34 Prakash S, Jain AK. Antifungal activity and preliminary phytochemical studies of leaf extract of Solanum nigrumlinn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:352-5.
35 Kalita L, Dash B, Borah U, Deka J, Dash S. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity ethanolic extracts of dried fruits of Solanum torvum (Family-Solanaceae). Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9:123-6.
36 Gandhiappan J, Rengasamy R. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activities of the members of Solanaceae. Pelagia research library. Der Pharm Sin 2012;3:357-60.
Statistics
40 Views | 100 Downloads
How to Cite
VN, S., and R. M. “PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTIONS, QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS, AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN THE LEAF AND STEM BARK OF SOLANUM PUBESCENS WILLD.”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 3, Feb. 2019, pp. 280-4, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/30389.
Section
Original Article(s)