• POONAM SANGWAN Department of Chemistry, GC Hisar, Haryana, India.
  • HARISH KUMAR Department of Chemistry, Central University of Mahendergarh, Haryana, India.
  • RENU RANI Department of Quality and Identity, Singh Plasticisers and Resin (I) Manufacturers Pvt., Ltd., Bhiwadi, Raj., India.


Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesize the molybdenum oxide nanoparticles (NPs) by employing wet chemical method and investigation of their antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria.

Methods: Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) NPs were synthesized using an eco-friendly wet chemical sol–gel technique. The synthesized MoO3 NPs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques to confirm the obtained product, size shape, morphology, functional groups, and absorption spectra, respectively. The size of the MoO3 NPs was found to be 41 nm. The antibacterial activity of these metal NPs was investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacter aerogenes by measuring the zone of inhibition and colony-forming units on solid medium and by measuring the optical density of the culture solution. Antibacterial activity of MoO3 NPs was also compared with well-known standard antibiotics.

Results: The antibacterial activities of molybdenum oxide NPs possessing size 41 nm were compared with standard antibiotics such as oxacillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. It was found that all of these antibiotics were effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis while Enterobacter aerogenes was resistant to oxacillin, co-trimoxazole and clindamycin, whereas the MoO3 nanoparticles were found to be effective against both of these bacterial pathogens.

Conclusion: Inorganic antimicrobial agents have advantages over organic antimicrobial agents due to their stability, preparation methods, and their ability to prevent bacteria to develop multidrug resistant. It was observed that MoO3 nanoparticles (NPs) possess good antibacterial properties; therefore, these can be used in pharmaceutical industries and provide a path for further research regarding the toxicity study for its use in human being.

Keywords: XRD, TEM, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes antebacterial activity.


1. Hajipour MJ, Fromm KM, Ashkarran AA, Jimenez de Aberasturi D, de Larramendi IR, Rojo T, et al. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles. Trends Biotechnol 2012;30:499-511.
2. Shinde MD, Chavan PG, Umarji GG, Arbuj SS, Rane SB, More MA, et al. Field emission and photo-catalytic investigations on hierarchical nanostructures of copper doped cdS synthesized by kitchen-chemistry approach. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2012;12:3788-98.
3. Shinde M, Patil R, Karmakar S, Bhoraskar S, Rane S, Gade W, et al. Antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2012;12:887-93.
4. Sangwan P, Kumar H, Purewal SS. Antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized chromium oxide nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis. Int J Adv Technol Eng Sci 2016;4:550-7.
5. Sangwan P, Kumar H. Synthesis characterization and antibacterial activities of chromium oxide nanoparticles against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:1-4.
6. Murugesan S, Bhuvaneswari S, Sivamurugan V. Green synthesis, characterization of silver nanoparticles of a marine red alga Spyridia fusiformis and their antibacterial activity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:192-7.
7. Selvarani M. Investigation of the synergistic antibacterial action of copper nanoparticles on certain antibiotics against human pathogens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:83-6.
8. Grasselli RK. Fundamental principles of selective heterogeneous oxidation catalysis. Top Catal 2002;21:79-88.
9. Arumugam M, Gang JL, Chin YC, Jing HC, Shih HM, Tzzy LH, et al. Synthesis of MoO3 nanoparticles for azo dye degradation by catalytic ozonation. Mater Res Bull 2015;62:184-91.
10. Huang L, Xu H, Zhang R, Cheng X, Xia J, Xu Y, et al. Synthesis, characterization of g-C3N4-MoO3 photocatalyst with improved photocatalytic activity. Appl Surf Sci 2013;283:25-32.
11. Yao DD, Field MR, O’Mullane AP, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Ou JZ. Electrochromic properties of TiO2 nanotubes coated with electrodeposited MoO3. Nanoscale 2013;5:10353-9.
12. Sen UK, Mitra S. Electrochemical activity of ?-MoO3 nanobelts as lithium ion battery cathode. RSC Adv 2012;2:11123-31.
13. Fu Q, Chen J, Shi C, Ma D. Room-temperature sol-gel derived molybdenum oxide thin films for efficient and stable solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2013;5:6024 9.
14. Zhang L, Xu Y, Jin D, Xie Y. Well aligned molybdenum oxide nanorods on metal substrate: Solution based synthesis and their electrochemical capacitor application. J Mater Chem 2010;20:7135-43.
15. Zhou L, Yang L, Yuan P, Zou J, Wu Y. ?-MoO3 nanobelts: A high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries. J Phys Chem C 2010;114:21868-72.
16. Liang R, Cao H, Qian D. MoO3 nanowires as electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials. Chem Commun (Camb) 2011;47:10305-7.
17. Baker C, Pradhan A, Pakstis L, Pochan DJ, Shah SI. Synthesis and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2005;5:244-9.
18. Zollfrank C, Gutbrod K, Wechsler P, Guggenbichler JP. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid moO(3) prevents microbial growth on material surfaces. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2012;32:47-54.
19. Krishnamoorthy K, Veerapandian M, Yun K, Kim SJ. New function of molybdenum trioxide nanoplates: Toxicity towards pathogenic bacteria through membrane stress. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013;112:521 4.
20. Ruben R, Filipe N, Muhammad NT, Henning J, Anubha K, Dennis S, et al. Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticleswith intrinsic sulfite oxidase activity. Am Chem Soc 2014;8:5182-9.
21. Neha D, Sawanta M, Vijay K, Rahul M, Chang H, Popatrao B. Chemically grown MoO3 nanorods for antibacterial activity study. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 2015;6:1-7.
22. Kumar H, Sangwan P, Luthra M. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel method. Adv Appl Phys Chem Sci A Sustain Approach 2014;21:99-104.
23. Dighore N, Jadhav S, Anandgaonker P, Gaikwad S, Rajbhoj A. Molybdenum oxide nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents. J Cluster Sci 2017;28:109-18.
24. Song JM, Zhao SJ, Hu Y, Ren MS, Shi YL, Ni XM. Self-assembly orthorhombic and hexagonal MoO3 microrods and their application in catalytic dyes decoloration. J Anhui Univ 2013;37:7-14.
25. Kanneganti A, Manasa C, Doddapaneni P. A sustainable approach towards synthesis of MoO3 nanoparticles using Citrus limetta pith extract. Int J Eng Adv Technol 2014;3:128-30.
39 Views | 36 Downloads
How to Cite
POONAM SANGWAN, HARISH KUMAR, and R. RANI. “WET CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MOLYBDENUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS AND ENTEROBACTER AEROGENES”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 4, Feb. 2019, pp. 59-63, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/30644.
Original Article(s)