• VIDYA V. KAMBLE Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.
  • NIKHIL B. GAIKWAD Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.


Objective: The objective of the present study is to carry out fluorescence analysis, phytochemical, and antioxidant activities using different solvent extract in leaves and stem of Embelia ribes.

Methods: In the present study, fluorescence analysis, phytochemical, and antioxidant activities of leaves and stem of E. ribes are carried out using standard procedures.

Result: The fluorescence analysis under visible and ultraviolet light for leaves and stem powder of E. ribes treated with various chemical reagents shown different fluorescence effect. In the phytochemical analysis, the methanolic extract of leaves has shown the highest total alkaloid content (19.05±0.42 mg CE/g DW), followed by the stem. The methanolic extract of stem exhibited highest total phenolic content (59.82±2.98 mg GAE/g DW), and ethanolic extract showed highest total flavonoid content (10.05±0.36 mg RE/g DW), followed by leaves. The ethanolic extract of stem possesses highest antioxidant activity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (84.86±0.11%), whereas methanolic extract of stem reported highest FRAP activity (72.22±0.31 mg Fe+2E/g DW), followed by leaves. Antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) were significantly correlated with TPC.

Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that the fluorescence analysis of leaves and stem of E. ribes can be helpful for the standardization and quality control of indigenous drug. Both leaves and stem serve as the good source of secondary metabolite and antioxidant agents.

Keywords: Embelia ribes, fluorescence analysis, antioxidant, alkaloids, phenol, flavonoid.

Author Biographies

VIDYA V. KAMBLE, Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.

Department of Botany

Research student

NIKHIL B. GAIKWAD, Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.

Associate professor,

Department of Botany,

Shivaji university, 



1. Olajuyigbe OO, Afolayan AJ. Pharmacological assessment of the medicinal potential of Acacia mearnsii de wild.: Antimicrobial and toxicity activities. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:4255-67.
2. Abbasi BH, Stiles AR, Saxena PK, Liu CZ. Gibberellic acid increases secondary metabolite production in Echinacea purpurea hairy roots. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2012;168:2057-66.
3. Harisaranraj R, Suresh K, Saravanababu S. Evaluation of the chemical composition Rauwolfia serpentina and Ephedra vulgaris. Adv Biol Res 2009;3:174-8.
4. Ahmad N, Abbasi BH, Rahman IU, Fazal H. Piper nigrum: Micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2013;169:2004-15.
5. Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C. Flavonoids: Antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med 2004;36:838-49.
6. Ravi KK, Ved DK. Illustrated Field Guide: 100 Red Listed Medicinal plants for Conservation Concern in Southern India. India: Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore; 2000. p. 467.
7. Seth SD, Johri N, Sundaram KR. Antispermatogenic effect of embelin from Embelia ribes. Indian J Pharmacol 1982;14:207-11.
8. Girthori JB, Hoglund J, Waller PJ, Baker R. Evaluation of antihelminthic properties of extracts from some plants used as livestocks dewormers by pastoralist and small holder farmers in Kenya against Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. Vet Parasite 2003;118:215-26.
9. Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ. Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda and Siddha. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha; 2002. p. 478-99.
10. Gupta OP, Ali MM, Ray GB. Some pharmacological investigations of embelin and its semisynthetic derivatives. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1977;21:31-9.
11. Evans WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Vol. 1. Singapore: Harcourt Baraco and Company Asia Pvt. Ltd.; 1996. p. 437-44.
12. Jarald EE, Jarald SE. A Text Book of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 1st ed. New Delhi, India: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2007. p. 6.
13. Gupta MK, Sharma PK, Ansari SH, Lagarkha R. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Grewia asiatica fruits. Int J Plant Sci 2006;1:249-51.
14. Ansari MM, Ahmad J, Ansari SH. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the stem bark of Balanites aegyptica Delile “Hingot”. Hamdard Med 2006;50:82-94.
15. Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 1965;16:144-58.
16. Chang CY, Wen HM, Chern J. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:178-82.
17. Singh SP, Shukla S, Yadav HK. Multivariate analysis in relation to breeding system in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Genetika 2004;36:111-20.
18. Jagtap UB, Panaskar SN, Bapat VA. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp. Plant Food Hum Nutr 2010;65:99-104.
19. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239:70-6.
20. Chakravarthy BK, Gupta S, Gambhir SS, Gode KD. Pancreatic ?-cell regeneration-A novel antidiabetic mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Indian J Pharmacol 1980;12:123-7.
21. Pimenta AM, Montenegro MC, Ujo AN, Mart’inez JC. Application of sequential injections analysis to pharmaceutical analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2006;40:16-34.
22. Reddy M, Chaturvedi A. Pharmacognostical studies of Hymenodictyon orixence (Roxb.) Mabb. Leaf. Int J Ayurveda Res 2010;1:103-5.
23. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1976. p. 1-288.
24. Balandrin MF, Kjocke AJ, Wurtele E. Natural plant chemicals: Sources of industrial and mechanical materials. Science 1985;228:1154-60.
25. Naraporn P, Varipat A. Screening for antioxidant activity in selected Thai wild plants. Asian J Food Agro Ind 2009;2:433-40.
26. Sulaiman CT, Balachandran I. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Pharm Sci 2012;74:258-60.
27. Valentine IK, Maria VK, Bruno B. Phenolic cycle in plants and environment. J Mol Cell Biol 2003;2:13-8.
28. Harborne JB. Functions of flavonoids in plants. In: Goodwin TW, editor. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments. New York: Academic Press; 1976. p. 736-78.
29. Mol J, Grotewold E, Koes R. How genes paint flowers and seeds. Trends Plant Sci 1998;3:212-7.
30. Korkina LG, Afanas’ev IB. In: Sies H, editor. Antioxidants in Disease Mechanisms and Therapy. San Diego: Academic Press; 1997. p. 151-63.
31. Roberts MF, Wink M, editors. Alkaloids: Biochemistry, Ecology and Medicinal Applications. New York: Plenum Press; 1998. p. 327-36.
32. John B, Sulaiman CT, George S, Reddy VR. Spectrophotometric estimation of total alkaloids in selected Justicia species. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:647-8.
33. Martin WE, Gandara JA. Alkaloid content of Ecuadoran and other American Cinchona barks. Bot Gaz 1945;107:184-99.
34. Lindley M. The impact of food processing on antioxidants in vegetable oils, fruits and vegetables. Trends Food Sci Technol 1998;9:336-40.
35. Middleton E, Kandaswamy C, Theoharides TC. The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: Implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacol Rev 2000;52:673-751.
36. Zhou K, Yu L. Antioxidant properties of bran extracts from trego wheat grown at different locations. J Agri Food Chem 2004;52:1112-7.
37. Chavan JJ, Jagtap UB, Gaikwad NB, Dixit GB, Bapat VA. Total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis L.) fruit pulp. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 2013;22:409-13.
38. Khatua S, Roy T, Acharya K. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extract from Russula laurocerasi. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:156-60.
39. Fidrianny I, Harnovi M, Insanu M. Evaluation of antioxidant activities from various extracts of sweet orange peels using DPPH. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:186-90.
40. Fidrianny I, Johan Y, Sukrasno. Antioxidant activities of different polarity extracts from three organs of makrut lime (Citrus hystrix DC) and correlation with total flavonoid, phenolic, carotenoid content. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:239-43.
41. Venkanna B, Uma A, Jayalakshmi L. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activites of various solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Physalis minima Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:192-8.
42. Shilpam S, Richa R. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant potential of Eclipta prostrata (L) L-a valuable herb. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:255-60.
41 Views | 10 Downloads
How to Cite
VIDYA V. KAMBLE, and NIKHIL B. GAIKWAD. “FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS, PHYTOCHEMICAL, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES IN LEAVES AND STEM OF EMBELIA RIBES BURM. F”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 4, Mar. 2019, pp. 225-9, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/30782.
Original Article(s)