CARDIOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF PLANTS AND PLANT-DERIVED PRINCIPLES – A REVIEW
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases involving heart or blood vessels. Coronary artery diseases include angina, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. CVDs are the leading cause of death globally. Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, poor diet, blood cholesterol, and lack of exercise. It is approximated that 90% of CVDs is preventable. High blood pressure results in 13% of CVD deaths, whereas tobacco outcomes in 9%, diabetes and lack of exercise in around 6%, and obesity in 5%. Due to certain medications such as anticancer drugs like doxorubicin, adverse effects result in MI. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been widely used in the treatment of diseases. This information may serve as a primer in identifying novel prophylactic as well as therapeutic studies of plant-derived principles. The parts of the plants such as seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and bark contain these phytoconstituents which are obtained through different extraction processes. Phytoconstituents are broadly classified into alkaloids, saponins, polyphenols, essential oils, carotenoids, glycosides, omega fatty acids, and flavonoids. Each class is responsible for its own pharmacological effects. The underlying mechanism in which they exert the action is different. This review presents an overview of the MI and therapeutic strategies of plant-derived principles that are available to mitigate the effect of MI.
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