• SANJIT NAMASUDRA Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam.
  • PANKAJ PHUKAN Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam.
  • MEENAKSHI BAWARI Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Mussaenda roxburghii with special reference to the nervous system.

Methods: For the study, 15 mice were obtained from Pasteur Institute, Shillong. The mice were then divided into three groups containing five mice in each group. The groups were, namely Group I, Group II, and Group III; Group I mice received distilled water and acted as a control group, Group II mice received plant extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (BWT.), and Group III mice received plant extract at a dose of 800 mg/kg BWT. The doses were administered orally through oral gavage tube for 28 days and the BWT of the mice was measured at 7th, 14th, 21th, and 28th days. The behavior of mice was evaluated for anxiety, locomotion, immobility, learning, and memory with the elevated plus maze test (EPMT), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and Morris water maze test (MWMT), respectively.

Results: The result of the experiment showed a decrease in the BWT of mice exposed to plant extracts significantly as compared to the control. In the OFT, there is a significant decrease in total distance travel in OFT and also total distance travel in the central zone in mice treated with the plant extracts as compared to the control mice. In the EPMT, the plant extract treated mice showed a decreased in the time spent in open arms. The FST results in increased immobility in mice exposed to plant extracts as compared to control. In the present study, MWMT results in an increased escape latency and path length and in decreased annulus crossovers in plant extract treated group as compared to control.

Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that the plant extract alters the behavior of the treated mice and possesses neurotoxic activity.

Keywords: Northeast, Toxicity, Neurobehavioral, Mice.


1. Vidyalakshmi KS, Vasanthi HR, Rajamanickam GV. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Mussaenda species (Rubiaceae). Ethnobot Lealf 2008;2008:57.
2. Payum T. GC-MS analysis of Mussaenda roxburghii Hk. f.: A folk food plant used among tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Pharmacogn J 2016;8:395-8.
3. Maiti D, Bhattacharjee B, Singha AK, Ghosh R, De UC. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti ?-glucosidase activities of the leaf extract from Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f.(rubiaceae). World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;2:3216-28.
4. Chowdury MI, Alam MN, Chowdhury S, Biozid MS, Faruk M, Mazumdar MM, et al. Evaluation of Ex-vivo anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous and thrombolytic activities of Mussaenda roxburghii Leaf. Eur J Med Plants 2015;10:1-7.
5. Latif F, Islam F, Kuddus MR, Hossain MK. Antioxidant, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities of Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f. iP Planet 2013;1:13-9.
6. Islam F, Raihan O, Chowdhury D, Khatun M, Zuberi N, Khatun L, et al Apoptotic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Mussaenda roxburghii leaves. Pak J Pharm Sci 2015;28:2027-34.
7. De UC, Ghosh R, Chowdhury S, Dinda B. New iridoid from aerial parts of Mussaenda roxburghii. Nat Prod Commun 2012;7:1-2.
8. Ghosh R, Das MC, Sarkar A, Das A, Sandhu P, Dinda B, et al. Exploration of phytoconstituents from Mussaenda roxburghii and studies of their antibiofilm effect. Chem Biodivers 2017;14: e1700165.
9. Tabata RC, Wilson JM, Ly P, Zwiegers P, Kwok D, Van Kampen JM, et al. Chronic exposure to dietary sterol glucosides is neurotoxic to motor neurons and induces an ALS-PDC phenotype. Neuromolecular Med 2008;10:24-39.
10. Supriya J, Kishor G, Aniket G. phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Portulaca quadrifida Linn. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:78-1.
11. Ladan Z, Amupitan JO, Oyewale OA, Ayo RG, Temple E, Ladan EO. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts of Hyptis spicigera plant. Afr J Pure Appl Chem 2014;8:83-8.
12. Thakur D, Sahani K. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of endophytic fungi (ef8; Aspergillus sp.3) isolated from Boerhavia diffusa L., stem. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:111-6.
13. Renuka K, Devi VR, Subramanian SP. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of immature palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) fruits. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:77-3.
14. Veerappan A, Miyazaki S, Kadarkaraisamy M, Ranganathan D. Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Aegle marmelos Corr., an Indian medicinal plant. Phytomedicine 2007;14:209-15.
15. Finney DJ. Probit Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1971.
16. Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M. Behavioral despair in mice: A primary screening test for antidepressants. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1977;229:327-36.
17. Khalki L, Bennis M, Sokar Z, Ba-M’hamed S. The developmental neurobehavioral effects of fenugreek seeds on prenatally exposed mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;139:672-7.
18. Lister RG. The use of a plus-maze to measure anxiety in the mouse. Psychopharmacology 1987;192:180-5.
19. Bailey SA, Zidell RH, Perry RW. Relationships between organ weight and body/brain weight in the rat: What is the best analytical endpoint? Toxicol Pathol 2004;32:448-66.
20. Everds NE, Snyder PW, Bailey KL, Bolon B, Creasy DM, Foley GL, et al. Interpreting stress responses during routine toxicity studies: A review of the biology, impact, and assessment. Toxicol Pathol 2013;14:560-614.
21. Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;78:165-70.
22. Carlini EA. Plants and the central nervous system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;75:501-12.
23. Torgal SS, Sugato CH. Effect of metformin and simvastatin in diazepam-and sodium nitrite-induced anterograde amnesia in male Swiss albino mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:18-2.
24. Castagné V, Moser P, Roux S, Porsolt RD. Rodent models of depression: Forced swim and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in rats and mice. Curr Protoc Pharmacol 2011;55:8-10.
25. Hou XQ, Wu DW, Zhang CX, Yan R, Yang C, Rong CP, et al. BushenYizhi formula ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative stressrelated neuronal apoptosis in scopolamineinduced senescence in mice. Int J Mol Med 2014;34:429-39.
26. Pellow S, Chopin P, File SE, Briley M. Validation of open: Closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 1985;14:149-67.
27. Zohar O, Rubovitch V, Milman A, Schreiber S, Pick CG. Behavioral consequences of minimal traumatic brain injury in mice. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2011;71:36-45.
28. Hasenöhrl RU, Nichau CH, Frisch CH, Silva MD, Huston JP, Mattern CM, et al. Anxiolytic-like effect of combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba in the elevated plus-maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996;15:271-5.
29. Ye JN, Chen XS, Su L, Liu YL, Cai QY, Zhan XL, et al. Progesterone alleviates neural behavioral deficits and demyelination with reduced degeneration of oligodendroglial cells in cuprizone-induced mice. PLoS One 2013;8:e54590.
30. Markel AL, Galaktionov YK, Efimov VM. Factor analysis of rat behavior in an open field test. Neurosci Behav Physiol 1989;19:279-86.
31. Smoothy R, Berry MS. Alchhol increases both locomotion and immobliy in mice: An ethological analysis of spontaneous motor activity. Psychopharmacology 1984;83:272-6.
32. Morris RG. Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 1984;11:47-60.
33. Gulyás M, Bencsik N, Pusztai S, Liliom H, Schlett K. Animal tracker: An imagej-based tracking API to create a customized behavior analysera program. Neuroinformatics 2016;14:479-81.
34. Phukan P, Namasudra S, Bawari M, Sengupta M. neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Hydrocotyle javanica in ameliorating neurobehavioral alteration induced by mercury. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:374-9.
174 Views | 40 Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)