NANOSTRUCTURE LIPID CARRIERS: A PROMISING TOOL FOR THE DRUG DELIVERY IN THE TREATMENT OF SKIN CANCERNANOSTRUCTURE LIPID CARRIERS: A PROMISING TOOL FOR THE DRUG DELIVERY IN THE TREATMENT OF SKIN CANCER

  • ARTI MAJUMDAR Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • NIDHI DUBEY Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • NEELESH MALVIYA Department of Pharmaceutics, Smriti College of Pharmaceutical Education, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer having a very high rate of incidence, exceeding the sum of all other types of cancers. Current topical treatments for non-melanoma skin cancer and their precursor lesions, such as actinic keratosis includes conventional treatments using semisolid formulations of 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac, and imiquimod. Photodynamic therapy is another topical treatment which is used and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. However, these conventional treatments present various side effects such as severe inflammation, pain, long duration of treatment, and unappealing scars leading to noncompliance of the patients. Hence, the main objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) as promising carriers for cytotoxic drugs due to their potential to increase the solubility and bioavailability (BA) of poorly water-soluble and lipophilic drugs. The topical administration of anticancer drugs through NLCs has many advantages such as reduced side effects, reduce degradation, and enhanced penetration of the drug through the stratum corneum (SC) and thus increased drug targeting and therapeutics and also cost benefits. NLCs are composed of mixture of solid lipids and liquid lipids, because of that they have adequate capacity to accommodate large amount of drug as compared to SLN. Being lipid-based drug delivery systems, NLCs have been proved as better drug delivery carriers for cytotoxic drugs due to their potential to increase the solubility and BA of poorly water-soluble and lipophilic drugs. This review includes the applications and recent developments in topical drug delivery using NLCs. The structures, preparation techniques, modulation of drug release, long-term stability of NLCs and their physicochemical characterization are systematically described in this review. The potential of NLCs in the drug therapy of skin cancer has been highlighted.

Keywords: Skin cancer, Nanostructured lipid carriers, Topical drug delivery, Drug targeting.

References

1. Simonetti LD, Gelfuso GM, Barbosa JC, Lopez RF. Assessment of the percutaneous penetration of cisplatin: The effect of monoolein and the drug skin penetration pathway. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;73:90-4.
2. Anthony ML. Surgical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. AORN 2000;71:550-64.
3. Alam M, Goldber H, Silapunt S, Gardner ES, Strom SS, Rademaker AW, et al. Delayed treatment and continued growth of nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;64:839-48.
4. Pamudji ES, Mauludin R, Indriani N. Development of nanostructured lipid carrier formulation containing of retinyl palmitate. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:256-60.
5. Gardouh AR, Samar HF, Ahmed TN, Mamdouh MG. Influence of formulation factors on the size of nanostructured lipid carriers and nanoemulsions prepared by high shear homogenization. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:61-75.
6. Berrera MV, Herrera E. Topical chemotherapy of actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer: Current options and future perspectives. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2007;98:556-62.
7. Galiczynski EM, Vidimos AT. Nonsurgical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Dermatol Clin 2011;29:297-309.
8. Lopez RF, Lange N, Guy R, Bentley MV. Photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: Controlled drug delivery of 5-ALA and its esters. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004;56:77-94.
9. Castelli F, Puglia C, Sarpietro MG, Rizza L, Bonina F. Characterization of indomethacin-loaded lipid nanoparticles by differential scanning calorimetry. Int J Pharm 2005;304:231-8.
10. Einspahr JG, Stratton SP, Bowden GT, Alberts DS. Chemoprevention of human skin cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2002;41:269-85.
11. Martinez JC, Otley CC. The management of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer: A review for the primary care physician. Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:1253-65.
12. Davids LM, Kleemann B. Combating melanoma: The use of photodynamic therapy as a novel, adjuvant therapeutic tool. Cancer Treat Rev 2010;37:465-75.
13. Taveira SF, Lopez RF. In: La Porta C, editor. Topical Administration of Anticancer Drugs for Skin Cancer Treatment. C. La Porta: Intech Open; 2011. p. 247-72.
14. Lane ME. Skin penetration enhancers. Int J Pharm 2013;447:12-21.
15. Korting HC, Schäfer-Korting M. Carriers in the topical treatment of skin disease. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2010;197:435-68.
16. Rawat M, Singh D, Saraf S. Nanocarriers: Promising vehicle for bioactive drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:1790-8.
17. Cevc G, Vierl U. Nanotechnology and the transdermal route: A state of the art review and critical appraisal. J Control Release 2010;141:277 99.
18. Mignani S, El Kazzouli S, Bousmina M, Majoral JP. Expand classical drug administration ways by emerging routes using dendrimer drug delivery systems: A concise overview. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2013;65:1316-30.
19. DeLouise LA. Applications of nanotechnology in dermatology. J Invest Dermatol 2012;132:964-75.
20. Grecco AC, Paula RF, Mizutani E, Sartorelli JC, Milani AM, Longhini AL, et al. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology 2011;22: 265103.
21. O’Driscoll CM, Griffin BT. Biopharmaceutical challenges associated with drugs with low aqueous solubility the potential impact of lipid based formulations. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2008;60:617-24.
22. Muller R, Mader K, Gohla S. Solid lipid NPs (SLN) for controlled drug delivery a review of the state of the art. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000b;50:161-77.
23. Muller RH, Maassen S, Weyhers H, Mehnert W. Phagocytic uptake and cytotoxicity of solid lipid NPs (SLN) sterically stabilized with poloxamine 908 and poloxamer 407. J Drug Target 1996;4:161-70.
24. Teeranachaideekul V, Muller RH, Junyaprasert VB. Encapsulation of ascorbyl palmitate in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) effects of formulation parameters on physicochemical stability. Int J Pharm 2007;340:198-206.
25. Lucks JS, Müller RH. Medication Vehicles made of Solid Lipid Particles (Solid Lipid Nanospheres SLN), in EP0000605497. Patent Germany: 1996.
26. Luck M, Pistel KF, Li YX, Blunk T, Müller RH, Kissel T. Plasma protein adsorption on biodegradable microspheres consisting of poly (-lactide-co-glycolide), poly(-lactide) or aba triblock copolymers containing poly(oxyethy- lene) Infl uence of production method and polymer composition. J Control Release 1997;55:107-20.
27. Muller RH, Dingler A. The next generation after the liposomes: Solid lipid NPs (SLNTM) as dermal carrier in cosmetics. Eurocosmetics 1998;8:19-26.
28. Müller RH, Radtke M, Wissing SA. Nanostructured lipid matrices for improved microencapsulation of drugs. Int J Pharm 2002;242:121-8.
29. Muller RH, Wissing SA. Lipopearls for topical delivery of active compounds and controlled release. In: Modified Release Drug Delivery Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.; 2003.
30. Muller RH, Radtke M, Wissing SA. Solid lipid NPs and nanostructured
lipid carriers. In: Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. California: American Scientific Publishers; 2004. p. 43-56.
31. Radtke M, Souto EB, Muller RH. Nanostructured lipid carriers: A novel generation of solid lipid drug carriers. Pharm Technol Eur 2005; 17:45-50.
32. Chen CC, Tsai TH, Huang ZR, Fang JY. Effects of lipophilic emulsifiers on the oral administration of lovastatin from nanostructred lipid carriers: Physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2010;74:474-82.
33. Hu FQ, Jiang SP, Du YZ, Yuan H, Ye YQ, Zeng S. Preparation and characteristics of monostearin nanostructured lipid carriers. Int J Pharm 2006;314:83-9.
34. Sato K. Crystallization behaviour of fats and lipids a review. Chem Eng Sci 2001;5:2255-65.
35. Hu FQ, Jiang SP, Du YZ, Yuan H, Ye YQ, Zeng S. Preparation and characterization of stearic acid nanostructured lipid carriers by solvent diffusion method in an aqueous system. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2005;45:167-73.
36. Jenning V, Thünemann AF, Gohla SH. Characterisation of a novel solid lipid nanoparticle carrier system based on binary mixtures of liquid and solid lipids. Int J Pharm 2000;199:167-77.
37. Schafer-Korting M, Mehnert W, Korting HC. Lipid NPs for improved topical application of drugs for skin diseases. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2007; 59:427-43.
38. Huang ZR, Hua SC, Yang YL, Fang JY. Development and evaluation of lipid nanoparticles for camptothecin delivery: A comparison of solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid emulsion. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2008;29:1094-102.
39. Stecova J, Mehnert W, Blaschke T, Kleuser B, Sivaramakrishnan R, Zouboulis CC, et al. Cyproterone acetate loading to lipid nanoparticles for topical acne treatment: Particle characterisation and skin uptake. Pharm Res 2007;24:991-1000.
40. Fang YP, Lin YK, Su YH, Fang JY. Tryptanthrin-loaded nanoparticles for delivery into cultured human breast cancer cells, MCF7: The effects of solid lipid/liquid lipid ratios in the inner core. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2011;59:266-71.
41. Shete H, Chatterjee S, De A, Patravale V. Long chain lipid based tamoxifen NLC. Part II: Pharmacokinetic, biodistribution and in vitro anticancer efficacy studies. Int J Pharm 2013;454:584-92.
42. Ruktanonchai U, Bejrapha P, Sakulkhu U, Opanasopit P, Bunyapraphatsara N, Junyaprasert V, et al. Physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity of three lipid nanoparticulate formulations of alpha-lipoic acid. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2009;10:227-34.
43. Puglia C, Sarpietro MG, Bonina F, Castelli F, Zammataro M, Chiechio S. Development, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of benzocaine and lidocaine-loaded nanostructrured lipid carriers. J Pharm Sci 2011;100:1892-9.
44. Luo Q, Zhao J, Zhang X, Pan W. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) coated with chitosan oligosaccharides and its potential use in ocular drug delivery system. Int J Pharm 2011;403:185-91.
45. Cirri M, Bragagni M, Mennini N, Mura P. Development of a new delivery system consisting in “dru in cyclodextrin in nanostructured lipid carriers” for ketoprofen topical delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2012; 80:46-53.
46. Pathak P, Nagarsenker M. Formulation and evaluation of lidocaine lipid nanosystems for dermal delivery. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2009; 10:985 92.
47. Gonzalez-Miraa E, Egeaa MA, Garciaa M, Souto EB. Design and ocular tolerance of flurbiprofen loaded ultrasound-engineered NLC. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2010;81:412-21.
48. Pardeike J, Weber S, Haber T, Wagner J, Zarfl HP, Plank H, et al. Development of an itraconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation for pulmonary application. Int J Pharm 2011; 419:329-38.
49. Averina ES, Müller RH, Popov DV, Radnaeva LD. Physical and chemical stability of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) based on natural lipids from Baikal region (Siberia, Russia). Pharmazie 2011;66:348-56.
50. Das S, Ng WK, Tan RB. Are nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC’s) better than solid lipid NPs (SLNs): Development, characterization and comparative evaluations of clotimazole-loaded SLNs and NLCs? Eur J Pharm Sci 2012;47:139-51.
51. Hung LC, Basri M, Tejo BA, Ismail R, Nang HL, Hassan HA, et al. An improved method for the preparations of nanostructured lipid carriers containing heat-sensitive bioactives. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2011; 87:180-6.
52. Thatipamula R, Palem C, Gannu R, Mudragada S, Yamsani M. Formulation and in vitro characterization of domperidone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. Daru 2011;19: 23 32.
53. Fang JY, Fang CL, Liu CH, Su YH. Lipid nanoparticles as vehicles for topical psoralen delivery: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) versus nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 70:633-40.
54. Constantinides PP, Tustian A, Kessler DR. Tocol emulsions for drug solubilization and parenteral delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56:1243-55.
55. Tsai MJ, Wu PC, Huang YB, Chang JS, Lin CL, Tsai YH, et al. Baicalein loaded in tocol nanostructured lipid carriers (tocol NLCs) for enhanced stability and brain targeting. Int J Pharm 2012;423:461-70.
56. Mehnert W, Mäder K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: Production, characterization and applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001;47:165 96.
57. Zhang X, Pan W, Gan L, Zhu CC, Pan W. Preparation of a dispersible pegylate nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) loaded with 10- hydroxyl camptothecin by spray-drying. Chem Pharm Bull 2008;56:1645-50.
58. Obeidat WM, Schwabe K, Müller RH, Keck CM. Preservation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2010; 76:56-67.
59. Charcosset C, El-Harati A, Fessi H. Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles using a membrane contactor. J Control Release 2005; 108:112-20.
60. Das S, Chaudhury A. Recent advances in lipid nanoparticle formulations with solid matrix for oral drug delivery. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2011;12:62-76.
61. Gasco MR. Method for Producing Solid Lipid Microspheres having a Narrow Size Distribution US Patent No. 5250236; 1993.
62. Cortesi R, Esposito E, Luca G, Nastruzzi C. Production of lipospheres as carriers for bioactive compounds. Biomaterials 2002;23:2283-94.
63. Bondi ML, Azzolina A, Craparo EF, Lampiasi N, Capuano G, Giammona G. Novel cationic solid-lipid NPs as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. J Drug Target 2007;15:295-301.
64. Trotta M, Debernardi F, Caputo O. Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles by a solvent emulsification-diffusion technique. Int J Pharm 2003;257:153-60.
65. Sjostrom B, Bergenståhl B. Preparation of submicron drug particles in lecithin-stabilized o/w emulsions I. Model studies of the precipitation of cholesteryl acetate. Int J Pharm 1992;88:53-62.
66. Schubert MA, Müller-Goymann CC. Solvent injection as a new approach for manufacturing lipid nanoparticles evaluation of the method and process parameters. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2003;55:125 31.
67. Heurtault B, Saulnier P, Pech B, Proust JE, Benoit JP. A novel phase inversion-based process for the preparation of lipid nanocarriers. Pharm Res 2002;19:875-80.
68. Battaglia L, Gallarate M, Panciani PP, Ugazio E, Sapino S, Peira E, et al. Techniques for the Preparation of Solid Lipid Nano and Microparticles. C. La Porta: Intech Open; 2015.
69. Cavalli R, Caputo O, Marengo E, Caputo O, Pattarino F, Gasco MR. The effect of the components of microemulsions on both size and crystalline structure of solid lipid NPs (SLN) containing a series of model molecules. Pharmazie 1998;53:392-6.
70. Jenning V, Lippacher A, Gohla SH. Medium scale production of solid lipid NPs (SLN) by high pressure homogenization. J Microencapsul 2002;19:1-10.
71. Iqbal MA, Md S, Sahni JK, Baboota S, Dang S, Ali J. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: Recent advances in drug delivery. J Drug Target 2012; 20:813-30.
72. Radtke M, Müller RH. Stability study of creams containing cyclosporine SLN™. Int Symp Control Rel Bioact Mater 2001;28:472 3.
73. Selvamuthukumar S, Velmurugan R. Nanostructured lipid carriers: A potential drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy. Lipids Health Dis 2012;11:159.
74. Freitas C, Müller RH. Correlation between long-term stability of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and crystallinity of the lipid phase. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1999;47:125-32.
75. Lippacher A. Pharmaceutical Characterization of Liquid and Semi- Soid SLN Dispersions for Topical Application. In PhD Thesis. Germany: Free University of Berlin; 2001.
76. Fang CL, Al-Suwayeh SA, Fang JY. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for drug delivery and targeting. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 2013;7:41-55.
77. Parveen S, Sahoo SK. Polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy. J Drug Target 2008;16:108-23.
78. Sitterberg J, Ozcetin A, Ehrhardt C, Bakowsky U. Utilising atomic force microscopy for the characterisation of nanoscale drug delivery systems. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2010;74:2-13.
79. Forny L, Saleh K, Denoyel R, Pezron I. Contact angle assessment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles related to the mechanisms of dry water formation. Langmuir 2010;26:2333-8.
80. Wissing SA, Müller RH, Manthei L, Mayer C. Structural characterization of Q10-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by NMR spectroscopy. Pharm Res 2004;21:400-5.
81. Schubert MA, Harms M, Müller-Goymann CC. Structural investigations on lipid nanoparticles containing high amounts of lecithin. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006;27:226-36.
82. Jores K, Haberland A, Wartewig S, Mäder K, Mehnert W. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and oil-loaded SLN studied by spectrofluorometry nd Raman spectroscopy. Pharm Res 2005;22:1887-97.
83. Ewesuedo RB, Ratain MJ. Principles of cancer chemotherapy. In: Vokes EE, Golomb HM, editors. Oncologic Therapeutics. New York: Springer; 2003. p. 19-66.
84. Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group. Polychemotherapy for early breast cancer: An overview of the randomized trials. Lancet 1998; 352:930-42.
85. Ratain MJ, Mick R. Principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In: Schilsky RL, Milano GA, Ratain MJ, editors. Principles of Antineoplastic Drug Development and Pharmacology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1996. p. 123-42.
86. Baird RD, Kaye SB. Drug resistance reversal are we getting closer? Eur J Cancer 2003;39:2450-61.
87. Safa AR. Multidrug resistance. In: Schilsky RL, Milano GA, Ratain MJ, editors. Principles of Antineoplastic Drug Development and Pharmacology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1996. p. 457-86.
88. Gieseler F, Rudolph P, Kloeppel G, Foelsch UR. Resistance mechanisms of gastrointestinal cancers: Why does conventional chemotherapy fail? Int J Colorectal Dis 2003;18:470-80.
89. Matsumura Y, Maeda H. A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: Mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent. Cancer Res 1968;6:193-210.
90. Souto EB, Almeida AJ, Müller RH. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN®, NLC®) for cutaneous drug delivery: Structure, protection and skin effects. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2007;3:317-31.
91. Baroli B. Penetration of nanoparticles and nanomaterials in the skin: Fiction or reality? J Pharm Sci 2010;99:21-50.
92. Cevc G. Lipid vesicles and other colloids as drug carriers on the skin. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004;56:675-711.
93. Müller RH, Petersen RD, Hommoss A, Pardeike J. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic dermal products. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2007;59:522-30.
94. Chen H, Chang X, Du D, Liu W, Liu J, Weng T, et al. Podophyllotoxin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for epidermal targeting. J Control Release 2006;110:296-306.
95. Knorr F, Lademann J, Patzelt A, Sterry W, Blume-Peytavi U, Vogt A. Follicular transport route research progress and future perspectives. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;71:173-80.
96. Marquele-Oliveiraa F, de Almeida Santanaa DC, Taveiraa SF, Vermeulena DM, de Oliveirab AR, da Silva RS, et al. Development of nitrosyl ruthenium complex-loaded lipid carriers for topical administration: Improvement in skin stability and in nitric oxide release by visible light irradiation. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010;53:843 51.
97. Lin YK, Huang ZR, Zhuo RZ, Fang JY. Combination of calcipotriol and methotrexate in nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery. Int J Nanomedicine 2010;5:117-28.
98. Nakai Y, Yamamoto K, Terada K, Akimoto K. The dispersed states of medicinal molecules in ground mixtures with ?- or ?-cyclodextrin. Chem Pharm Bull 1984;32:685-90.
99. Joshi M, Patravale V. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) based gel of celecoxib. Int J Pharm 2008;346:124-32.
100. Souto EB, Wissing SA, Barbosa CM, Muller RH. Comparative study between the viscoelastic behaviors of different lipidnanoparticle formulations. J Cosmet Sci 2004;55:463-71.
101. Silva AC, Santos D, Ferreira DC, Souto EB. Minoxidil-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): Characterization and rheological behaviour of topical formulations. Pharmazie 2009;64:177-82.
102. Ricci M, Puglia C, Bonina F, Giovanni CD, Giovagnoli S, Rossi C. Evaluation of indomethacin percutaneous absorption from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): In vitro and in vivo studies. J Pharm Sci 2005;94:1149-59.
103. Eitenmiller RR, Landen WO Jr. Vitamin Analysis for the Health and Food Sciences. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing; 1998.
104. Abla MJ, Banga AK. Formulation of tocopherol nanocarriers and in vitro delivery into human skin. Int J Cosmet Sci 2014;36:239-46.
105. Sanad RA, Abdelmalak NS, Elbayoomy TS, Badawi AA. Formulation of a novel oxybenzone-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2010;11:1684-94.
106. Agrawal Y, Petkar KC, Sawant KK. Development, evaluation and clinical studies of acitretin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis. Int J Pharm 2010;401:93-102.
107. Han F, Li S, Yin R, Shi X, Jia Q. Investigation of nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008; 34:453-8.
108. González-Mira E, Nikoli S, García ML, Egea MA, Souto EB, Calpena AC. Potential use of nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery of flurbiprofen. J Pharm Sci 2011;100:242-51.
109. Doktorovova S, Araújo J, Garcia ML, Rakovsk E, Souto EB. Formulating fluticasone propionate in novel PEG-containing nanostructured lipid carriers (PEG-NLC). Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2010;75:538-42.
110. Pinto MF, Moura CC, Nunes C, Segundu MA, Lima SA, Reis S. A new topical formulation for psoriasis: Development of 3 methotrexate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Int J Pharm 2014;477:519-26.
111. Nnamani PO, Hansen S, Windbergs M, Lehr CM. Development of artemether-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation for topical application. Int J Pharm 2014;477:208-17.
112. Yu GC, Fen YC, Lu LQ, Qi T, Wei XY, Na LW, et al. Development of a quercetin-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier formulation for topical delivery. Int J Pharm 2012;430:292-8.
113. Gupta M, Vyas SP. Development, characterization and in vivo assessment of effective lipidic nanoparticles for dermal delivery of fluconazole against cutaneous candidiasis. Chem Phys Lipids 2012; 165:454-61.
114. Yang XY, Li YX, Li M, Li Z, Feng LX, Zhang N. Hyaluronic acid-coated nanostructured lipid carriers for targeting paclitaxel to cancer. Cancer Lett 2012;344:338-45.
115. Agrawal U, Gupta M, Vyas SP. Capsaicin delivery into the skin with lipidic nanoparticles for the treatment of psoriasis. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2013;43:33-9.
116. Raza K, Singh B, Lohan S, Sharma G, Negi P, Yaccha Y, et al. Nano-lipoidal carriers of tretinoin with enhanced percutaneous absorption, photostability, biocompatibility and anti-psoriatic activity. Int J Pharm 2013;456:65-72.
117. Pradhan M, Singh D, Murthy SN, Singh MR. Design, characterization and skin permeating potential of fluocinolone acetonide loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis. Steroids 2015;101:56-63.
118. Khalil RM, Elbary AA, Kssem MA, Ghorab MM, Basha M. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) versus solid lipid nanoparticles(SLNs) for topical delivery of meloxicam. Pharm Dev Technol 2014;19:304-14.
119. Araujo J, Mira EG, Egea MA, Garcia ML, Souto EB. Optimization and physicochemical characterization of a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded NLC for ocular antiangiogenic applications. Int J Pharm 2010;393: 167 75.
120. Okur NU, Gokse EH, Bozbiyik DI, Egrilmez S, Ozer O, Ertan G. Preparation and in vitro in vivo evaluation of of loxacin loaded ophthalmic nano structured lipid carriers modified with chitosan oligosaccharide lactate for the treatment of bacterial keratitis. Eur J Pharm Sci 2014;63:204-15.
121. Shen J, Deng Y, Jin X, Ping Q, Su Z, Li L, et al. Thiolated nanostructured lipid carriers as a potential ocular drug delivery system for cyclosporine A: Improving in vivo ocular distribution. Int J Pharm 2010; 402:248-53.
122. Das S, Ng YK, Tan RB. Sucrose ester stabilized solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers: II. Evaluation of the imidazole antifungal drug-loaded nanoparticle dispersions and their gel formulations. Nanotechnology 2014;25:105102.
123. Tung NT, Huyen VT, Chi SC. Topical delivery of dexamethasone acetate from hydrogel containing nanostructured liquid carriers and the drug. Arch Pharm Res 2015;38:1999-2007.
124. Jain A, Mehra NK, Nahar M, Jain NK. Topical delivery of enoxaparin using nanostructured lipid carrier. J Microencapsul 2013;30:15.
125. Chen Y, Zhou L, Yuan L, Zhang ZH, Liu X, Wu Q. Formulation, characterization, and evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and in vivo pharmacodynamics of surface-charged tripterine-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Int J Nanomed 2012;7:3023-33.
126. Patel D, Dasgupta S, Dey S, Ramani YR, Ray S, Majumdar B. Nanostructured lipid carriers (nlc)-based gel for the topical delivery of aceclofenac: Preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation. Sci Pharm 2012;80:749-64.
Statistics
214 Views | 108 Downloads
How to Cite
ARTI MAJUMDAR, NIDHI DUBEY, and NEELESH MALVIYA. “NANOSTRUCTURE LIPID CARRIERS: A PROMISING TOOL FOR THE DRUG DELIVERY IN THE TREATMENT OF SKIN CANCERNANOSTRUCTURE LIPID CARRIERS: A PROMISING TOOL FOR THE DRUG DELIVERY IN THE TREATMENT OF SKIN CANCER”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 5, Mar. 2019, pp. 15-26, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/31239.
Section
Review Article(s)