CARDIOVASCULAR RISK SCREENING SERVICES IN SUDANESE COMMUNITY PHARMACIES

  • SUMIA S MOHAMED Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
  • DALIA A BALLAL Clinical Pharmacy Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Abstract

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the Sudanese community pharmacists' knowledge and practice of cardiovascular disease risk assessment services.

Methods: The study was conducted as a non-interventional, descriptive, cross sectional community-pharmacy based survey.

Results: The Response rate was 91%. The obese and the elderly received the highest ratings for cardiovascular disease risk assessment. Hypertension, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and ages >55 and 36-55 years were mostly targeted for screening. Variable responses were reported regarding the type of fasting lipid profile that is screened. One third of the participants claimed to have screening evaluation forms. Most participants had the appropriate equipment for screening but only a few had cholesterol measures. Only 27% reported the use of cardiovascular risk charts or calculator for the evaluation. Overwhelming majority had no documentation records and the most available reference was the BNF.

Conclusion: The current knowledge and practice of cardiovascular disease risk assessment is poor and need fundamental development. Community pharmacy practice in the Sudan is still product oriented. These services were provided by respondents on voluntary bases without full knowledge or appropriate training on proper assessment and evaluation of the risks that they measured. This needs to change if pharmacy’s potential is to be reached. Collaboration between health authorities and universities is essential to acknowledge the new roles of the pharmacist and provide the appropriate knowledge and training needed to promote and implement the change process that is required.

Keywords: Community pharmacy, cardiovascular disease, screening services, risk assessment

Author Biography

SUMIA S MOHAMED, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Professor

 

References

1. World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Diseases CVDs; 2017. Available from: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds).
2. National Ministry of Health, Directorate of Pharmacy Annual Report, Khartoum State; 2015.
3. Mukesh K, Vicky D, Shruti M, Dinesh S, Neha M, Mangla L. Cardiovascular disease prevalence and drug utilization patterns at a tertiary care hospital in Northeastern India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:116-9.
4. O’Donovan D, Byrne S, Sahm L. Pharmacist’s use of screening tools to estimate risk of CVD: A review of the literature. Pharmacy 2014;2:27 39.
5. Willis A, Rivers P, Gray LJ, Davies M, Khunti K. The effectiveness of screening for diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a community pharmacy setting. PLoS One 2014;9:1-9.
6. Tsuyuki RT, Al Hamarneh YN, Jones CA, Hemmelgarn BR. The effectiveness of pharmacist interventions on cardiovascular risk: The multicenter randomized controlled RxEACH trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;67:2846-54.
7. Peterson GM, Fitzmaurice KD, Kruup H, Jackson SL, Rasiah RL. Cardiovascular risk screening program in Australian community pharmacies. Pharm World Sci 2010;32:373-80.
8. Rohla M, Haberfeld H, Sinzinger H, Kritz H, Tscharre M, Freynhofer MK, et al. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies. Open Heart 2016;3:1-7.
9. Mc Namara KP, Peterson GM, Hughes J, Krass I, Versace V, Clark RA, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment in Australian community pharmacy. Heart Lung Circ 2017;26:667-76.
10. Jahangard-Rafsanjani Z, Hakimzadeh N, Sarayani A, Najafi S, Heidari K, Javadi MR, et al. A community pharmacy-based cardiovascular risk screening service implemented in iran. Pharm Pract (Granada) 2017;15:1-6.
11. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Pharmacy-Based Screening for Cardiovascular Risk; 2015.Available from: https://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-us/publications?utm_source=NewZapp&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Eyes on Evidence email campaign.
12. Mohamed SS, Ballal DA. Awareness and attitude of khartoum state community pharmacists towards cardiovascular disease screening services. World J Pharm Res 2018;7:1196-209.
13. Joyce A, Berbatis CG, Sunderland VB, Dhaliwal SS. Analysis of primary prevention services for cardiovascular disease in Australia’s community pharmacies. Aust N Z J Public Health 2007;31:516-9.
14. WHO Pocket Guidelines for Assessment and Management of Cardiovascular Risk: (WHO/ISH Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Charts for the African Region). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. p. 1-30.
15. DiPro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, editors. Diabetes Mellitus Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York: AccessPharmacy. McGraw-Hill Medical; 2017. p. 1143-90.
16. Hall RJ, Lefroy D, Simpson I MP. JBS2: Joint British societies’ guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Heart 2005;91:v-1-52.
17. McGlynn S, Reid F, McAnaw J, Chinwong S, Hudson S. Pharmaceutical care: Coronary heart disease. Pharm J 2000;265:194-205.
18. Nasution A, Khairunnisa, Tanjung HR. Impacts of counseling on adherence to prescribed medications and blood pressure of hypertensive patients in four Indonesian primary health centers. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:114-7.
19. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB). Expanded practice guidance on blood pressure monitoring. Pharm J 2003;270:171.
20. Reamy BV, Williams PM, Kuckel DP. Prevention of cardiovascular disease: Guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk. Prim Care Clin Off Pract 2018;45:25-44.
Statistics
76 Views | 32 Downloads
How to Cite
SUMIA S MOHAMED, and DALIA A BALLAL. “CARDIOVASCULAR RISK SCREENING SERVICES IN SUDANESE COMMUNITY PHARMACIES”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 7, May 2019, pp. 98-102, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/31600.
Section
Original Article(s)