“EVALUATION OF GALPHIMIA GLAUCA STEM METHANOL EXTRACT FRACTIONS FOR ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES”
Objective: This current investigation assesses in vivo central and peripheral analgesic effects and anti-inflammatory properties of fractions obtained from Galphimia glauca (GG) stem methanol extract.
Methods: The laboratory models such as Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats were employed in the studies. The GG stem methanol extract was subjected to fractionation with solvents such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Orally, the dose range of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was given for 1 day for evaluating analgesic (hotplate test, tail clip test, writhing test, and formalin test) and weekdays for assessing anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan and cotton pellet test methods), respectively. The experimental studies were further conducted for determining the involvement of central and peripheral receptor actions in the analgesic activity of the extract by prechallenging it with naloxone and acetic acid, respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory studies were conducted using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and cotton pellet granuloma test.
Results: The LD50 of the extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg b.w. The methanol fraction of 400 mg/kg dose exhibited significant (p≤0.001) and dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. It also exhibited central and peripheral analgesic actions when treated with naloxone and acetic acid, respectively.
Conclusion: The results revealed that the stem methanol fraction has more potential in terms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
2. Veeresham C. Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2012;3:200-1.
3. Anderson C. Revision of Galphimia (Malpighiaceae). Contr Univ Mich Herbarium 2007;25:1-82.
4. Anderson C. Galphimia (Malpighiaceae) in South America. Contr Univ Mich Herbarium 2005;24:1-2.
5. Tortoriello J, Lozoya X, Gomez E, Brunner M. Mesenceplalic effects of galphimine-B, a triterpenoid from Galphimia glauca. Neurophytopharmaceuticals 1998;3:77-96.
6. Herrera-Ruiz M, González-Cortazar M, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, Alvarez L, Ramírez G, et al. Anxiolytic effect of natural galphimines from Galphimia glauca and their chemical derivatives. J Nat Prod 2006;69:59-61.
7. Tortoriello J, Arellano AH, Herrera-Ruiz ML, Zamilpa A, Cortazar MG, Jimenez Ferrer JE. New anxiolytic phytopharmaceutical elaborated with the standardized extract of Galphimia glauca. In: Kalinin V, editor. Anxiety Disorders. Croatia: In Tech Publication; 2011.
8. Cardoso Taketa AT, Lozada-Lechuga J, Fragoso-Serrano M, Villarreal ML, Pereda-Miranda R. Isolation of nor-secofriedelanes from the sedative extracts of Galphimia glauca. J Nat Prod 2004;67:644-9.
9. Baba Shankar Rao G, Srisailam K, Uma Maheswararao V. Assessment of Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Galphimia glauca stem methanol extract on noxious provocation induced pain and inflammation in in vivo models. J Chem Pharm Res 2016;8:1282-9.
10. Baba Shankar Rao G, Srisailam K, Uma Maheswararao V. In vivo evaluation of noxious stimulus induced pain and inflammation in mice and rats using a methanol extract of Galphimia glauca leaf. Asian J Chem 2016;28:1815-9.
11. Baba Shankar Rao G, Srisailam K, Uma Maheswararao V. CNS depressant effects and muscle relaxant activity of Galphimia glauca leaf methanol extract. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2016;9:230-40.
12. Garige BS, Keshetti S, Vattikuti UM. In vivo study on depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of Galphimia glauca stem methanol extract. Pharmacognosy Res 2016;8:219-25.
13. OECD Guidelines 423. OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. Acute Oral Toxicity- Acute Toxic Class Method. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2001.
14. Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy Techniques and Experiments. 21st ed. Pune: Niraliprakashan; 2002.
15. Murray CW, Porreca F, Cowan A. Methodological refinements to the mouse paw formalin test. An animal model of tonic pain. J Pharmacol Methods 1988;20:175-86.
16. Koster R, Anderson M, De Beer EJ. Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Fed Proc 1959;18:412-21.
17. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-iflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1962;111:544-7.
18. Meier R, Schuler W, Desaulles P. On the mechanism of cortisone inhibition of connective tissue proliferation. Experientia 1950;6:469 71.
19. Zakaria ZA, Patahuddin H, Mohamad AS, Israf DA, Sulaiman MR. In vivo anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Piper sarmentosum. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;128:42-8.
20. Mohan H. Textbook of Pathology. 4thed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.; 2015.
21. Chauhan S, Navpreet K, Lishore L, Randhir S. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Litchi chinensis Gaertn. (Sonn). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:116-9.
22. Pandeya SN. A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry. 3rd ed. Varanasi: SG Publishers; 2004.
23. Laaboudi W, Ghanam J, Aissam H, Merzouki M, Benlemlih M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of olive tree extract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:414-9.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.