SYNTHESIS OF COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES BY CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS SP. AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS SP.
Objective: To determine antimicrobial efficacy of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) against Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp.
Methods: CuO NPs were synthesized using chemical precipitation method. The reducing agent, 0.1 M NaOH, was used along with 100 mM CuSO4 precursor for the synthesis of CuO NPs. The characterization of CuO NPs was done by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study optical and morphological characteristics, correspondingly. The identification of bacterial cultures was done through microscopic and biochemical studies. Antibacterial efficacy of CuO NPs was determined against Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. by qualitative and quantitative methods through anti-well diffusion assay and broth dilution method, respectively.
Results: The absorption spectrum and band gap were found to be at 260 nm and 4.77 eV, respectively. The SEM image of CuO NPs shows cluster of nanostructures having width of individual clusters in the range of 100 nm–500 nm. CuO NPs showed inhibition at a concentration ranging from 60 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL.
Conclusion: Finally, CuO NPs can be used as effective antibacterial agent against Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. and may have applications in medical microbiology.
2. Witte W. International dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains of bacterial pathogens. Infect Genet Evol 2004;4:187-91.
3. Baker-Austin C, Wright MS, Stepanauskas R, McArthur JV. Co-selection of antibiotic and metal resistance. Trends Microbiol 2006;14:176-82.
4. Huh AJ, Kwon YJ. “Nanoantibiotics”: A new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era. J Control Release 2011;156:128-45.
5. Whitesides GM. Nanoscience, nanotechnology, and chemistry. Small 2005;1:172-9.
6. Morones JR, Elechiguerra JL, Camacho A, Holt K, Kouri JB, Ramírez JT, et al. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 2005;16:2346-53.
7. Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B. Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: A case study on E. Coli as a model for gram-negative bacteria. J Colloid Interface Sci 2004;275:177-82.
8. Cioffi N, Torsi L, Ditaranto N, Tantillo G, Ghibelli L, Sabbatini L, et al. Copper nanoparticle/polymer composites with antifungal and bacteriostatic properties. Chem Mater 2005;17:5255-62.
9. Li Z, Lee D, Sheng X, Cohen RE, Rubner MF. Two-level antibacterial coating with both release-killing and contact-killing capabilities. Langmuir 2006;22:9820-3.
10. Cava RJ. Structural chemistry and the local charge picture of copper oxide superconductors. Science 1990;247:656-62.
11. Tranquada JM, Sternlieb BJ, Axe JD, Nakamura Y, Uchida S. Evidence for stripe correlations of spins and holes in copper oxide superconductors. Nature 1995;375:561.
12. Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ. Metal oxide nanoparticles as bactericidal agents. Langmuir 2002;18:6679-86.
13. Phiwdanga K, Suphankija S, Mekprasarta W, Wisanu P. Synthesis of CuO nanoparticles by precipitation method using different precursors. Energy Proc 2013;34:740-5.
14. Singh K, Tafida GM. Antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaves extracts against some selected bacteria. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:52-4.
15. Tyor A, Kumari S. Biochemical characterization and antibacterial properties of fish skin mucus of fresh water fish, hypophthalmichthys nobilis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:132-6.
16. Yoon KY, Hoon Byeon J, Park JH, Hwang J. Susceptibility constants of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to silver and copper nanoparticles. Sci Total Environ 2007;373:572-5.
17. Ruparelia JP, Chatterjee AK, Duttagupta SP, Mukherji S. Strain specificity in antimicrobial activity of silver and copper nanoparticles. Acta Biomater 2008;4:707-16.
18. Cioffi N, Ditaranto N, Torsi L, Picca RA, Sabbatini L, Valentini A, et al. Analytical characterization of bioactive fluoropolymer ultra-thin coatings modified by copper nanoparticles. Anal Bioanal Chem 2005;381:607-16.
19. Lin YE, Vidic RD, Stout JE, McCartney CA, Yu VL. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium by copper and silver ions. Water Res 1998;32:1997-2000.
20. Kim JH, Cho H, Ryu SE, Choi MU. Effects of metal ions on the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase VHR: Highly potent and reversible oxidative inactivation by cu2+ ion. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000;382:72-80.
21. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;18:321-36.
22. Jeyaraman R, Subramanian J, Marikani K, Rajakumar A, Govindasamy. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of copper nanoparticles. Mater Lett 2012;71:114-6.
23. Pawar J, Henry R, Viswanathan P, Patwardhan A, Singh EA. Testing of antibacterial efficacy of CuO nanoparticles by methylene blue reduction test against Bacillus cereus responsible for food spoilage and poisoning. Indian Chem Eng 2018;1:1-6.
24. Azam A, Ahmed AS, Oves M, Khan MS, Memic A. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of cuO nanoparticles against gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. Int J Nanomedicine 2012;7:3527-35.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.