• BEHZAD SHARIF MAKHMAL ZADEH Nanotechnology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
  • BAHAREH KHANDEH ZAMIN Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.



Chitosome,, Liposome, Burn wound treatment,, Mafenide acetate


Objective: Mafenide acetate has appropriate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria isolated from the eschar surface. This drug has a high permeability through eschar which causes not only low concentration in the target place but also systemic toxicity. The aim of this study was localization of mafenide acetate into the eschar by chitosome.

Methods: In this study, liposomes are prepared with thin-layer hydration method and then covered by chitosan film. Based on full factorial design, different formulation was prepared and characterized and the selected formulation was applied on burned rat skin.

Results: Chitosan decreased membrane fluidity by interaction with phospholipid and cholesterol that induced lower drug loading efficiency and higher particle size of chitosomal formulation in comparison with liposomal formulations. Mucoadhesive and slow drug release property of chitosomes provided higher drug concentration into the eschar.

Conclusion: Impairment barrier property of eschar can be treated by the application of chitosomes. Chitosomes provided more drug concentration into the eschar and so are better vehicles for burn wound treatment in comparison with liposomes.


Dai T, Huang YY, Sharma SK, Hashmi JT, Kurup DB, Hamblin MR, et al. Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2010;5:124-51.

Moghimi HR, Makhmalzadeh BS, Manafi A. Enhancement effect of terpenes on silver sulphadiazine permeation through third-degree burn eschar. Burns 2009;35:1165-70.

Arturson G. Pathophysiology of the burn wound and pharmacological treatment. The Rudi Hermans lecture, 1995. Burns 1996;22:255-74.

Williams WG. In: Herendon DN, editor. Pathophysiology of Burn Wound. London: Total Burn Care. Susnders; 2002. p. 514-22.

Monafo WW, West MA. Current treatment recommendations for topical burn therapy. Drugs 1990;40:364-73.

Stefanides MM, Copeland CE, Kominos SD, Yee RB. In vitro penetration of topical antiseptics through eschar of burn patients. Ann Surg 1976;183:358-64.

Salem HF, Tamam SM, Lotayef SM. Biodegradable liposome for acyclovir-gold nanoparticles as an efficient carrier for enhanced topical delivery. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:60-4.

Hao J, Guo B, Yu S, Zhang W, Zhang D, Wang J, et al. Encapsulation of the flavonoid qurecetin with chitosan coated nano-liposomes. Food Sci Tech 2017;85:37-44.

Zhou F, Xu T, Zhao Y, Song H, Zhang L, Wu X, et al. Chitosan-coated liposomes as delivery systems for improving the stability and oral bioavailability of acteoside. Food Hydrocoll 2018;83:17-24.

Peng S, Zou L, Liu W, Li Z, Liu W, Hu X, et al. Hybrid liposomes composed of amphiphilic chitosan and phospholipid: Preparation, stability and bioavailability as a carrier for curcumin. Carbohydr Polym 2017;156:322-32.

Liu W, Liu J, Liu W, Li T, Liu C. Improved physical and in vitro digestion stability of a polyelectrolyte delivery system based on layer-by-layer self-assembly alginate-chitosan-coated nanoliposomes. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61:4133-44.

Lee CM, Kim DW, Lee KY. Effect of chitosan coating for liposomes as an oral carrier. J Exp Biomed Sci 2011;17:211-6.

Sadhasivam L, Dey N, Fraocis AP, Devasena T. Transdermal patches of chitosan nanoparticles for insulin delivery. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:84-8.

Zadeh BS, Azh Z, Azarpanah Z. Preparation and evaluation of mafenide acetate liposomal formulation as eschar delivery system. Int J Drug Dev Res 2011;3:156-64.

Takeuchi H, Matsui Y, Sugihara H, Yamamoto H, Kawashima Y. Effectiveness of submicron-sized, chitosan-coated liposomes in oral administration of peptide drugs. Int J Pharm 2005;303:160-70.

Karami MA, Zadeh BS, Kouchek M, Moghimipour E. Superoxide dismutase-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by cold homogenization method: Characterization and permeation through burned rat skin. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2016;11:e33968.

Souto EB, Wissing SA, Barbosa CM, Müller RH. Development ofa controlled release formulation based on SLN and NLC for topical clotrimazole delivery. Int J Pharm 2004;278:71-7.

Bhatia A, Kumar R, Katare OP. Tamoxifen in topical liposomes: Development, characterization and in-vitro evaluation. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2004;7:252-9.

Mady MM, Darwish MM, Khalil S, Khalil WM. Biophysical studies on chitosan-coated liposomes. Eur Biophys J 2009;38:1127-33.

Mengoni T, Adrian M, Pereira S, Santos-Carballal B, Kaiser M, Goycoolea FM, et al. A chitosan-based liposome formulation enhances the in vitro wound healing efficacy of substance P neuropeptide. Pharmaceutics 2017;9:1-7.

Mady MM, Darwish MM. Effect of chitosan on the characteristics of DPPC liposomes. J Adv Res 2010;1:187-91.

Chen WL, Yuan ZQ, Liu Y, Yang SD, Zhang CG, Li JZ, et al. Liposomes coated with N-trimethyl chitosan to improve the absorption of harmine in vivo and in vitro. Int J Nanomedicine 2016;11:325-36.

Nzai JM, Proctor A. Determination of phospholipids in vegetable oil by FT-IR. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1998;75:1281-9.

Harrison HN, Bales HW, Jacoby F. The absorption into burned skin of sulfamylon acetate from 5 per cent aqueous solution. J Trauma 1972;12:994-8.

Harrison HN, Blackmore WP, Bales HW, Reeder W. The absorption of C 14-labeled sulfamylon acetate through burned skin. I. Experimental methods and initial observations. J Trauma 1972;12:986-93.



How to Cite

BEHZAD SHARIF MAKHMAL ZADEH, and BAHAREH KHANDEH ZAMIN. “the THE EFFECT OF CHITOSAN COATING ON MAFENIDE ACETATE-LOADED LIPOSOME CHARACTERIZATION AND DELIVERY THROUGH BURNED RAT SKIN”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 12, no. 7, July 2019, pp. 212-7, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i7.32338.



Original Article(s)