CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF TEUCRIUM POLIUM L.
Objective: The aim of this work is the simplification of the exploitation of medicinal plants that are widely spread in Algeria such as Teucrium polium and search for new biological molecules; first, we performed an anatomical study of the plant to identify their characteristics, then a chemical analysis of its essential oils to identify the active substances contained in this plant; finally, we tested the antibacterial properties of this essential oil.
Methods: The extraction of essential oils was carried out by hydrodistillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chromatographic analysis of HE of this plant was performed with a Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph (GC) controlled pore glass (CPG)/FID 7890, coupled to a GC: CPG/mass spectrometry (MS) 7890/5975C. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method. The cross sections were manually prepared and the coloring process was done using double coloration method.
Results: The results show that the extraction yield was 0.7. The extraction produced yellowish essential oils with a very strong odor. Twenty-seven compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS, the major compounds were β-pinène (30.61%) followed by carvacrol (13.09%) and α-pinène (10.40%). Essential oils of this plant exhibited an antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureu, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant. The anatomical study of this plant shows three different types of glandular trichomes on leaves and stems.
Conclusion: This study allowed identifying the anatomical characteristics of T. polium as well as the chemical composition of their essential oil. It has also been shown that this essential oil has an important and significant antibacterial activity.
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