• PAVANI P Department of Applied Botany, Kuvempu University, Shimoga, Karnataka, India
  • RAJA NAIKA Department of Applied Botany, Kuvempu University, Shimoga, Karnataka, India.


Objective: The object of the present study, the methanolic leaf extract of Zanthoxylum ovalifolium was examined for anti-inflammatory activity and tested using carrageenan-induced paw edema in albino Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: The rats were grouped into five, each group consisting of six animals, Group I (negative control) received 1 ml of saline, Group II (standard) received 10 mg/kg p. o. of indomethacin, and remaining three groups received three different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p. o.) of the methanolic leaf extract after 1 h 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan injection. The result of anti-inflammatory activity was set up to be dose-dependent in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model.

Results: The methanolic leaf extract has shown significant (p<0.001) inhibition of paw edema, 66%, 66.03%, and 69.29% on the 3rd h at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p. o., respectively. The results were expressed as the Mean±standard error of mean and statistical significance was analyzed by ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. The methanolic leaf of Z. ovalifolium extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with the standard drug indomethacin.

Conclusion: Methanolic leaf extract of Z.ovalifolium showed excellent results in the anti-inflammatory experiment so, the plant can be explored as a potential medicine in suppressing inflammation.

Keywords: Zanthoxylum ovalifolium, methanolic leaf extract, anti-inflammatory activity, paw edema, carrageenan.


1. Yirga G. Assessment of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Afr J Plant Sci 2010;4:6-11.
2. Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci 2005;78:431-41.
3. Pirani JR. A new species and a new combination in Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) from Brazil. Brittonia 1993;45:154-8.
4. Arun KK, Paridhavi M. An ethno botanical phytochemical and pharmacological utilization of widely distributed species Zanthoxylum: A comprehensive overview. Int J Periodontol Implantol 2012;2 :24–35.
5. Medhi K, Deka M, Bhau BS. The genus Zanthoxylum a stockpile of biological and ethnomedicinal properties. Sci Rep 2013;2 :691-697.
6. Sanjib B, Pallab K, Haldar MD, Zaman MD. Anti inflammatory activity and antioxidant role of Zanthoxylum nitidum bark. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2011;11:271-7.
7. Guo T, Deng YX, Xie H, Yao CY, Cai CC, Pan SL, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethyl acetate fraction from Zanthoxylum armatum in mice. Fitoterapia 2011;82:347-51.
8. Lima LM, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JC, Bastos JK. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanolic extracts from Zanthoxylum riedelianum (Rutaceae) leaves and stem bark. J Pharm Pharmacol 2007;59:1151-8.
9. Jullian V, Bourdy G, Georges S, Maurel S, Sauvain M. Validation of use of a traditional antimalarial remedy from French Guiana, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;106:348-52.
10. Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, DuCelliar J, Duke PK. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2002. p. 786-7.
11. Talbot WA. Forest Flora of the Bombay Presidency and Sind. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers; 1976. p. 187-8.
12. Joshi RK. 2, 4, 6-Trimethoxy-styrene new chemotype from the essential oil of Zanthoxylum ovalifolium wight from India. Natl Acad Sci Lett 2014;37:331-3.
13. Nathan C. Points of control in inflammation. Nature 2002;420:846-52.
14. Varma S. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. J Phytopharmacol 2016;5:157-9.
15. Pilotto A, Sancarlo D, Addante F, Scarcelli C, Franceschi M. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in the elderly. Surg Oncol 2010;19:167-72.
16. Lanas A, Chan FKL. Peptic ulcer disease. Lancet 2017;390:613-24.
17. Singh R, Kumar R, Singh DP. Nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Gastrointestinal-sparing potential drugs. J Med Food 2009;12:208-18.
18. Mannur S, Bhaskar M, Rao K. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Boswellia serrata on carrageenan induced paw edema in albino Wistar rats. Int J Res Med Sci 2016;4:2986.
19. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiiflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1962;111:544-7.
20. Umamageswari A, Kudagi BL. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Ocimum sanctum: A comparative study using animal models. Int J Basic Clin Pharm 2015;4:981-6.
21. Laaboudi W, Ghanam J, Aissam H, Merzouki M, Benlemlih M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of olive tree extract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:415-9.
22. Kuttan R, Shivamurthy GR, Kuttan G. Potential anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity of six mistletoe plants in the family viscaceae present in Western Ghats, India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:57-64.
23. Vinegar R, Truax JF, Selph JL, Johnston PR, Venable AL, McKenzie KK. Pathway to carrageenan-induced inflammation in the hind limb of the rat. Fed Proc 1987;46:118-26.
24. Brooks PM, Day RO. Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs: Difference and similarities. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1716-25.
25. Muralidharan V, Deepti CA, Raja SA. A review on anti-inflammatory potential of substituted pyrazoline derivatives synthesised from chalcones. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:9-14.
224 Views | 106 Downloads
How to Cite
PAVANI P, and RAJA NAIKA. “ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF ZANTHOXYLUM OVALIFOLIUM WEIGHT METHANOLIC EXTRACT ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 5, Apr. 2019, pp. 274-7, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i5.32730.
Original Article(s)