• AKILA B Department of Biochemistry, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust Women’s College, Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • MANIKANDASELVI S Department of Biochemistry, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust Women’s College, Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India.


Objective: Antioxidant and anticancer studies of the ethanolic fruit extract of Ziziphus jujuba were aimed at detecting the phytochemicals and ascertain the antioxidant and anticancer activities using in vitro experimental models.

Materials and Methods: In this study, physiochemical parameters were carried out, and the content of phytoorganic constituents such as total carbohydrates, fats, proteins, crude fibers, and flavonoids was determined. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has been used for detecting the phytochemicals, and 10 different concentrations have been screened for their antioxidant and anticancer activities.

Results: Ethanolic fruit extract of Z. jujuba revealed the presence of caffeic acid hexoside dimer, chlorogenic acid, and triterpenoid derivative by LC–MS analysis. The extract exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity of 25.32% at 10 mg/ml in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assays, which are comparable to that of standard butylated hydroxytoluene. High concentration (10 mg/ml) of the extract revealed anticancer efficacy up to 40.36% by MTT assay, which is equivalent to the action of 5-flurouracil.

Conclusion: The ethanolic fruit extract of Z. jujuba might possess antioxidant and anticancer activities owing to the occurrence of bioactive compounds.

Keywords: Anticancer activity,, Antioxidant activity,, Ziziphus jujube.


1. Kuchenbaecker KB, Ramus SJ, Tyrer J, Lee A, Shen HC, Beesley J, et al. Identification of six new susceptibility loci for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Nat Genet 2015;47:164-71.
2. Veskoukis AS, Tsatsakis AM, Kouretas D. Dietary oxidative stress and antioxidant defense with an emphasis on plant extract administration. Cell Stress Chaperones 2012;17:11-21.
3. Bannister J, Gutteridge J. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press Publisher; 2007.
4. Bagchi S. Breast cancer rises in India. CMAJ 2008;179:27.
5. Majumdar GP. Vedic Plants in BC, Law Commemoration. Vol. 1. Calcutta, India; 1945.
6. Guil-Guerrero JL, Díaz Delgado A, Matallana González MC, Torija Isasa ME. Fatty acids and carotenes in some ber (Ziziphus jujuba mill) varieties. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2004;59:23-7.
7. Pareek S. Nutritional composition of Jujube fruit. Emirates J Food Agric 2013;25:463-70.
8. Benammar C, Hichami A, Yessoufou A, Simonin AM, Belarbi M, Allali H, et al. Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) modulates antioxidant activity and human T-cell proliferation. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010;10:54.
9. Hudina M, Liu M, Veberic R, Stampar F, Colaric M. Phenolic compounds in the fruit of different varieties of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 2008;83:305-8.
10. Pawlowska AM, Camangi F, Bader A, Braca A. Flavonoids of Zizyphus jujuba and Zizyphus spina-christi(L) Wild (Rhamnaceae) fruits. Food Chem 2000;112:858-62.
11. Peng WH, Hsieh MT, Lee YS, Lin YC, Liao J. Anxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphus jujuba in mouse models of anxiety. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:435-41.
12. Eley JG, Hossein D. Permeability enhancement activity from Ziziphus jujuba. Pharm Biol 2002;40:149-53.
13. Lee SM, Min BS, Lee CG, Kim KS, Kho YH. Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. Planta Med 2003;69:1051-4.
14. Taraneh E, Asna U. Antioxidant components and activity in the peel of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. J Pharm Res 2012;5:2705-9.
15. Ganachari MS, Shiv K, Bhat KG. Effect of Ziziphus jujube leaves extract on phagocytosis by human neutrophils. J Nat Remedies 2007;41:47-51.
16. Ganachari MS, Kumar S. Anti-ulcer properties of Ziziphus jujuba Lam leaves extract in rats. J Nat Remedies 2004;4:103-8.
17. Shirdel Z, Madani H, Mirbadalzadeh R. Investigation into the hypoglycemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba Leaves on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Iran J Diabetes Lipid Disord 2009; 8:13-9.
18. Kumar CH, Arutla R, Swaroopa D, Rao KS. Wound healing potential of Ziziphus jujube bark extract on albino rats. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2012;3:23-7.
19. Gupta RB, Sharma S, Sharma JR, Goyal R. Study on the physicochemical characters of fruits of some wild and cultivated forms/spp. Haryana J Hortic Sci 2004;33:167-9.
20. Sarfaraz A, Ansari SH, Porchezhian E. Antifungal activity of alcoholic extracts of Ziziphus vulgaris and Acacia concinna. Hamdard Med 2002;14/15:42-5.
21. Elmahi M, Essassi EM, Hamamouchi M, Hamamouchi J. Study on the antimicrobial and antibilharzia activity of Ziziphus vulgaris. Fitoterapia 1997;68:34-6.
22. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Govertment of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy. New Delhi: Controller of Publications, Civil Lines; 1989.
23. Mukherjee R, Pandit S, Das N, Sur TK. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats by himoliv. A polyherbal formulation. Ind J Pharmacol 2003;35:183-5.
24. Southgate DA. Determination of carbohydrates in foods I. Available carbohydrate. J Sci Food Agric 1969;20:326-30.
25. Rajashree R, Divya G, Sushma P, Kanchan I, Ashwagandha A, Shatavari A. Formulations as herbal medicines and nutraceuticals. Res J Pharm Sci 2012;1:10-5.
26. Eller F, King JW. Determination of fat content in foods by analytical SFE. Semin Food Anal 1996;1:14-6.
27. Van Soest PJ, McQueen RW. The chemistry and estimation of fiPJ., Proc Nutr Soc 1973;32:123-30.
28. Boham BA, Kocipai AC. Flavonoids and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiian V. vaticulatum and V. calycinium. Pac Sci 1994;48:458-63.
29. Sanchez-Moreno C, Larrauri JA, Saura-Calixto F. Free radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of lipid oxidation of wines, grape juices and related polyphenolic constituents. Food Res Int 1999;32:407-12.
30. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983;65:55-63.
31. Rahman HU, Mahmood R, Haris M, Rahman N. Phytochemical profiling of successive extracts of fruit and stem bark of Solanum pubescens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:147-53.
32. Manikandaselvi S, Vadivel V, Brindha P. Studies on physicochemical and nutritional properties of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L. J Food Drug Anal 2016;24:508-15.
33. Haque S, Lopa SD, Das BK. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Spilanthes paniculata. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;8:390-2.
34. Mahima A, Rahal R, Deb E. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indeginous and ethno veterinary medicines. Pak J Biol Sci 2012;15:754-74.
35. Hakkim FL, Achankunju J, Hasan SS. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and anti-bacterial activity of Omanâ cymbopogon. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:329-31.
174 Views | 35 Downloads
How to Cite
AKILA B, and MANIKANDASELVI S. “IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC FRUITS EXTRACT OF Ziziphus Jujube Mill.”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 6, Apr. 2019, pp. 160-5,
Original Article(s)