WATER SOURCE AS THE MAIN RISK FACTOR OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS INFECTION ON PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ANTIGA VILLAGE, BALI
Keywords:Water resource,, Risk factors,, Soil-transmitted helminths,, Primary school students
Objective: This study aims to find out the main risk factor of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infection, so the results of this study can be used to determine the right steps in STH education and eradication.
Methods: This study uses a cross-sectional analytic design. The sample consists of 105 primary school students at “Sekolah Dasar Negeri (SDN) 3” Antiga Village, Bali, using total sampling techniques. To collect data, modified Kato-Katz technique and questionnaire are used. The data then analyzed using logistic regression in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23 software.
Results: The prevalence of STH infection in “SDN 3” Antiga is 14.3%. Three students infected by Ascaris lumbricoides (20%), eight students infected by Trichuris trichiura (53.3%), and four students infected by mix infections (26.7%). The main risk factor of STH infection is the water source from a river (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 7.875; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.311–26.836).
Conclusion: Of 105 participants, 15 students (14.3%) had STH infection. The highest prevalence of helminths egg found was Trichuris trichiura. The main risk factor of STH infection in this study is the source of water, which is from a river nearby (P = 0.001, OR 7.875, CI 95% 2.311–26.836).
Dhunmati K, Jaison D, Kousalya M, Yaseen AM, Swerha S, Kuppuram G. Evaluation of in vitro antihelmintic activity of the roots of Ziziphus oenoplia Linn, Mill. (Rhamnaceae). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:597 9.
Husori DI, Bancin DY, Muhaimin M, Bahri S, Patilaya P. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Allium fistulosum L. Leaves on Ascaris lumbricoides. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2016;8:1310-3.
Handayani D, Ramdja M, Nurdianthi IF. Hubungan infeksi soil-transmitted helminths (STH) dengan prestasi belajar pada siswa SDN 169 di kelurahan gandus kecamatan gandus kota palembang. Majalah Kedokt Sriwijaya 2015;365:91-6.
Guetchueng ST, Nnanga EN. Quality control evaluation of brands of mebendazole 100 mg tablets on the illegitimate pharmacy outlets. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:355-7.
Gunawardena K, Kumarendran B, Ebenezer R, Gunasingha MS, Pathmeswaran A, de Silva N, et al. Soil-transmitted helminth infections among plantation sector schoolchildren in Sri Lanka: Prevalence after ten years of preventive chemotherapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011; 5:e1341.
Menzies SK, Rodriguez A, Chico M, Sandoval C, Broncano N, Guadalupe I, et al. Risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infections during the first 3 years of life in the tropics; Findings from a birth cohort. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014;8:e2718.
Suriptiastuti. Infeksi soil-transmitted helminth : Ascariasis, trichiuriasis dan cacing tambang. Univers Med 2006;25:84-93.
Annisa S, Anwar C. The relationship between soil transmitted helminths (STH) infection and nutritional status in students of state elementary school number (SDN) 200 Palembang Indonesia. Bioscientia Med 2018; 2:42-53.
Larassanthi I. Pengaruh infeksi soil transmitted helminth (STH) terhadap daya ingat dan koordinasi visual-motorik dalam fungsi kognitif anak-anak SDN 1 sulangai, Kabupaten Badung, dan SDN 1 Blandingan, Kabupaten Bangli, Bali. E J Medika Udayana 2018;7:148 54.
Wiryadana KA, Putra IW, Rahayu PD, Pradnyana MM, Purwanta ML, Sudarmaja IM. Risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth infection among elementary school students. Paediatr Indones 2017;57:295-302.
Gulliver F, Jeandron A, Anh V, Anh H, Ensink JH. Transmission of helminth eggs through hands in a high-risk community. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2014;108:670-2.
Paige SB, Friant S, Clech L, Malavé C, Kemigabo C, Obeti R, et al. Combining footwear with public health iconography to prevent soil-transmitted helminth infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017;96:205-13.
Strunz EC, Addiss DG, Stocks ME, Ogden S, Utzinger J, Freeman MC, et al. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 2014;11:e1001620.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.