PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN THE WHOLE PLANT EXTRACTS OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA
Objectives: The aim of this research work was to carry out the phytochemical screening and to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the whole plant extract (shoot, flower, and tuber) of the flame lily (Gloriosa superba).
Materials and Methods: In the current work, phytochemicals were extracted from different parts of the plant using different solvents dimethyl sulfoxide, ethyl acetate, and ethanol (ETOH). These phytochemicals contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, aromatic acids, phenolic compounds, xanthoproteins, triterpenoids, amino acids, philobatinins, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, and proteins and they were separated using standard methods. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of methanolic separation were determined using various species of bacteria and fungi. Agar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial activity and the zone of the inhibition was analyzed.
Results: The evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts indicated the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, proteins, amino acids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and phlobatannins. Tuber extracts highlighted effective antibacterial and antifungal activities compared with shoot and flower extracts against all the tested bacteria and fungi. ETOH extract of the tuber observed highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (19 mm), followed by Escherichia coli (18 mm), Micrococcus luteus (17 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17 mm), and Salmonella abony (16 mm) when compared to shoot and flower extracts. G. superba tuber extracts highlighted effective antifungal activities compared with shoot and flower extracts against all the tested fungi. ETOH extract of the tuber observed highest antifungal activity against Rhizopus oryzae (20.17 mm), followed by Mucor Sp. (19.87 mm), Aspergillus niger (18.02), Candida krusei (17.98 mm), and Candida albicans (16.88 mm) as compared to shoot and flower extracts.
Conclusion: Results of the current studies flame lily ETOH extracts showed that the plant has significant antimicrobial activities. The strong antibacterial and antifungal activities of flame lily are due to the presence of tannins and flavonoids present in.
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