FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OINTMENT CONTAINING SUNFLOWER WAX
Objective: The objective of the present work was to formulate and evaluate ointment using sunflower wax.
Methods: In the present work, ointment formulations were prepared using sunflower wax by fusion technique. Sunflower wax base was compared with standard base for its pH, appearance, strength, spreadability, water number, and washability. Further, the optimized formulation was prepared with 2% salicylic acid and evaluated for its physicochemical parameters, compatibility study, drug content, in vitro drug diffusion, ex vivo permeability, and skin irritation test using rat skin.
Results: All of the prepared formulations of ointments were evaluated for its physicochemical parameters and all the findings obtained were within the prescribed limit. As compared to the ointment prepared by prototype formulae as per USP and IP, the formulation F3 containing 97% white petrolatum and 3% of sunflower wax showed good viscosity, strength, and spreadability. Based on viscosity, strength, and spreadability, formulation F3 was chosen as an optimized formulation.
Conclusion: The ointment consisting of white petroleum base 97% and 3% sunflower wax can be used for topical and systemic delivery of active ingredient salicylic acid. The results showed that sunflower wax can be used in ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned. It can effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases.
2. Marty JP. NMF and cosmetology of cutaneous hydration. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002;129:131-6.
3. Cravello B, Ferri A. Relationships between skin properties and environmental parameters. Skin Res Technol 2008;14:180-6.
4. Cancalon P. Chemical composition of sunflower seed hulls. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1971;486:29-32, 12.
5. Morrison WH. Variation in the wax content of sunflower seeds with location and hybrids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1983;60:1013-5.
6. Ayerbe R. A study on the recovery of byproducts from the dewaxing of sunflower oils of national production. Grasas Aceites 1985;36:1-4.
7. Wannee J. Review of nutraceutical uses of an antioxidant sunflower sprouts. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:21-3.
8. Mariani C. Minor components of vegetable oils: Non-glyceridic esters. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 1989;66:397-401.
9. Carelli AA. Wax composition of sunflower seed oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2002;79:763-8.
10. Sharma PP. Cosmetics-formulation, Manufacturing and Quality Control, Cap. 7. 5th ed. Delhi, India: Vandana Publications; 2014. p. 181-91.
11. Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Weller PJ. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2003.
12. Bhalekar M, Manish L, Krishna S. Formulation and evaluation of rice bran wax as ointment base. Anc Sci Life 2004;24:52-5.
13. Lachman L, Herbert AL, Joseph LK. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Chp 3. India: Varghese Publication House; 1999. p. 569.
14. Kilor V, Sapkal N, Vaidya G. Design and development of novel microemulsion based topical formulation of hesperidin. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:142-8.
15. Multimer M. Spreadability determination by an apparatus. J Am Pharm Assoc 1956;45:212-4.
16. Dua D, Srivastava NS. Study on antioxidant and anti-aging properties of few medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:344-7.
17. Ayobami OO, Okikiolu OJ, Hannah OO, Samuel OO. Ocular tolerance and in-vitro release of chloramphenicol in prospective eye ointment bases. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:306-11.
18. Pattanayak S, Nayack SS, Dinda SC, Panda D, Naval KP. Evaluation of herbal ointments formulated with methanolic extract of Cajanus scarabaeoides. J Pharm Allied Health Sci 2011;2:47-59.
19. Daniels R, Knie U. Galenics of dermal products vehicles, properties and drug release. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2007;5:367-83.
20. Suchiwa PO, Soravoot R, Ounaroon A, Kongkaew C, Tiyaboonchaia W. Development, characterization and skin irritation of mangosteen peel extract solid dispersion containing clay facial mask. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:202-8.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.