PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MUNTINGIA CALABURA L STEM BARK AGAINST NORMAL AND STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETES
Objective: This research was attributed to the investigation of preliminary phytochemical constituents and evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura L stem bark against normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Methods: The investigation of preliminary phytochemical study includes a methanolic extract of M. calabura L was prepared through using Soxhlet apparatus. The methanolic extract was qualitatively analyzed to find out the plant secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and sterols. The hypoglycemic activity was determined by streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Screening for hypoglycemic activity of the methanol extract was performed on albino Wistar rats, and glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg, p. o.) was used as a reference standard for activity comparison. All the test samples were administered by the oral route.
Results: The preliminary phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of M. calabura L stem bark revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and sterols as secondary metabolites. The methanolic extract of M. calabura L stem bark showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The antihyperglycemic activity of M. calabura L extract may be due to the presence of several bioactive antidiabetic principles such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and sterols.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the hypoglycemic activity of crude methanolic extract of M. calabura L stem bark has been proved; hence, there is ongoing research to isolate and characterize the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the antidiabetic activity of M. calabura L stem bark in in vivo animal studies.
2. Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. Vol. 4. Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1994. p. 107.
3. Nshimo CM, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD, Farnsworth NR. Cytotoxic constituents of Muntingia calabura leaves and stems collected in Thailand. Int J Pharmacogn 1993;31:77.
4. Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: An updated systematic review. Drugs 2009;69:1777-98.
5. Elliott RB, Pilcher CC, Fergusson DM, Stewart AW. A population based strategy to prevent insulin-dependent diabetes using nicotinamide. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1996;9:501-9.
6. Altschuler JA, Casella SJ, MacKenzie TA, Curtis KM. The effect of cinnamon on A1C among adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007;30:813-6.
7. Daneman D. Type 1 diabetes. Lancet 2006;367:847-58.
8. Dans AM, Villarruz MV, Jimeno CA, Javelosa MA, Chua J, Bautista R, et al. The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60:554-9.
9. Mohan V, Shah S, Saboo B. Current glycemic status and diabetes related complications among Type 2 diabetes patients in India: Data from the A1chieve study. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61:12-5.
10. Lawrence JM, Contreras R, Chen W, Sacks DA. Trends in the prevalence of preexisting diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus among a racially/ethnically diverse population of pregnant women, 1999-2005. Diabetes Care 2008;31:899-904.
11. Lawrence JM, Contreras R, Chen W, Sacks DA. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with Type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). UK prospective diabetes study (UKPDS) group”. Lancet 1998;352:854-65.
12. Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA. Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens. Phytother Res 2004;18:706-12.
13. Dash GK, Ganapaty S, Suresh P. Studies on Tragia involucrata Linn. Aryavaidyan 2003;16:226-33.
14. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. 29th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2004. p. 108-9.
15. Mukherjee PK. Quality Control Herbal Drugs. New Delhi: Business Horizons Pharmaceutical Publishers; 2002. p. 246-379.
16. Srivastava M, Kumar A, Pal M. Phytochemical investigation on Jatropha curcas seed cake. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2010;1:357-62.
17. Edwin E, Sheeja E, Dhanabal SP, Suresh B. Antihyperglycemic activity of Passiflora mollissima Bailey. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007;69:570-1.
18. Ponnachan PT, Paulose CS, Panikkar KR. Effect of leaf extract of Aegle marmelose in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1993;31:345-7.
19. Dash GK, Bal SK, Annapurna MM, Suresh P. Studies on the hypoglycaemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. Roots. Pharmacogn Mag 2008;4:221-5.
20. Ahmed F, Urooj A. Antihyperglycemic activity of Ficus glomerata stem bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Glob J Pharmacol 2008;2:41-5.
21. Kalyan BV, Kothandam H, Venkatesh P, Praveen AR. Hypoglycemic activity of seed extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacogn J 2011;3:45-7.
22. Chau T. Pharmacology methods in the control of inflammation. In: Liss AR, editor. Modern Methods in Pharmacology. Vol. 5. New York: Inc.; 1989. p. 195-212.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.