ANTIATHEROSCLEROTIC AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACT OF PROSOPIS CINERARIA POD IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS
Objective: The present study is done to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic efficacy of petroleum ether extract of Prosopis cineraria pod in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.
Methods: Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day) which was mixed in coconut oil for 15 days. Rabbits were then administered with petroleum ether extract of P. cineraria pod for 45 days (Group III), and another set of the group was treated with standard drug Atorvastatin for 45 days. After the completion of the experimental period, the serum biochemistry and histological analysis of thoracic aorta was done. Along with it lipid peroxidation(LPO) and antioxidant parameters such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were estimated.
Results: There was a significant increase (p≤0.001) in serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprtein (LDL) and triglycerides after cholesterol feeding when compared with the control group (Group I). Antioxidant parameters were altered too with an increased serum LPO while the reduction in CAT, SOD, and FRAP was observed. After the administration of the petroleum ether extract, significant reduction in TC, LDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein -C, and triglyceride was observed as compared to high-fat diet control rabbits. Slightly significant reduction in (p≤0.05) atherosclerotic plaque in the aorta was observed while cardiac LPO was lowered alternatively CAT, SOD, and FRAP levels increased in petroleum ether extract administered rabbits.
Conclusion: The outcomes from this study recommend that P. cineraria pod extract has hypocholesterolemic effect thereby controlling atherosclerosis and has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for improving the lipid profile.
2. Rao SP, Mohanta G, Manna P. An overview of statins as hypolipidemic drugs. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2011;3:178-83.
3. Wong AP, Mohamed AL, Niedzwiecki A. Atherosclerosis and the cholesterol theory: A reappraisal. World J Cardiovasc Dis 2016;6:391-409.
4. Blum A. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), inflammation, and endothelial progenitor cells-new mechanistic insights of atherosclerosis. Biofactors 2014;40:295-302.
5. Ramkumar S, Raghunath A, Raghunath S. Statin therapy: Review of safety and potential side effects. Acta Cardiol Sin 2016;32:631-9.
6. Jain PG, Surana SJ. Hypolipidemic activity of Prosopis cineraria L (Druce) fruit extract and molecular modeling study with farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Trop J Pharm Res 2015;14:1621-8.
7. Rengarajan S, Melanathuru V, Munuswamy D. Comparative studies of antioxidant activity from the petals of selected Indian medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:29-34.
8. Khokar A, Menghani E. Antimicrobial activity of Prosopis cineraria (Leaf) methanol and chloroform extract against selected bacterial species. Int J Pharm BioSci 2015;6:222-9.
9. Robertson S, Narayanan N. Isolation and characterization of secondary metabolite from Prosopis cineraria (L.) druce for anticancer activity. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:876-84.
10. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502.
11. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
12. Weydert CJ, Cullen JJ. Measurement of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in cultured cells and tissue. Nat Protoc 2010;5:51-66.
13. Fan J, Kitajima S, Watanabe T, Xu J, Zhang J, Liu E, et al. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: From pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine. Pharmacol Ther 2015;146:104-19.
14. Kajal A, Kishore L, Kaur N, Gollen R, Singh R. Therapeutic agents for the management of atherosclerosis from herbal sources. Beni Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 2016;5:156-69.
15. Jamkhande PG, Chandak PG, Dhawale SC, Barde SR, Tidke PS, Sakhare RS, et al. Therapeutic approaches to drug targets in atherosclerosis. Saudi Pharm J 2014;22:179-90.
16. Vettor R, Serra R. Management of hypercholesterolemia, appropriateness of therapeutic approaches and new drugs in patients with high cardiovascular risk. Ital J Med 2018;12:203-12.
17. Shashkin P, Dragulev B, Ley K. Macrophage differentiation to foam cells. Curr Pharm Des 2005;11:3061-72.
18. Jensi VD, Gopu PA. Potent inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase phytoconstituents from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Ex Dc.) wight and arn. An in silico approach through molecular docking studies. Eur J Biomed Pharm Sci 2018;5:384-90.
19. Mach F, Ray KK, Wiklund O, Corsini A, Catapano AL, Bruckert E, et al. Adverse effects of statin therapy: Perception vs. The evidence-focus on glucose homeostasis, cognitive, renal and hepatic function, haemorrhagic stroke and cataract. Eur Heart J 2018;39:2526-39.
20. Chadha R, Purohit K. Wheat bran extract mimics statin like action in hyperlipidemic rabbits: An experimental study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:402-5.
21. Ram H, Purohit A. Hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Prosopis cineraria bark extract in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rabbits. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:106-9.
22. Joshi LD, Singhal PC, Gupta RK. Changes in serum cholesterol and blood sugar levels in feeding with guar and its solvent extracts. Curr Sci 1982;51:21-5.
23. Ram H, Jatwa R, Purohit A. Antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of acacia senegal seeds in diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Biochem Res Int 2014;2014:1-6.
24. Anwer T, Sharma M, Khan G, Alam MF, Alam N, Ali MS, et al. Preventive role of Withania somnifera on hyperlipidemia and cardiac oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced Type 2 diabetic rats. Trop J Pharm Res 2017;16:119-25.
25. Higashi Y, Noma K, Yoshizumi M, Kihara Y. Endothelial function and oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases. Circ J 2009;73:411-8.
26. Olorunnisola OS, Bradley G, Afolayan AJ. Protective effect of T. violacea rhizome extract against hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Molecules 2012;17:6033-45.
27. Liu Y, Singh D, Nair MG. Pods of khejri (Prosopis cineraria) consumed as a vegetable showed functional food properties. J Funct Foods 2012;4:116-21.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.