• UMAMAHESWARI A Department of Pharmacology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, The Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • BHUVANESWARI K Department of Pharmacology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, The Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • MUTHURAMAN PL Department of Pharmacology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, The Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.


Objective: This study aim was to compare the in vitro antioxidant property of fresh juice and dry powder of Emblica officinalis (EO) by chemical testing and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay and also to observe the in vivo effect of EO fruit dry powder on food intake, body weight, behavior changes, and antioxidant levels in restraint stress rat model.

Methods: In vitro study, EO fresh juice 1% v/v and its dry powder form were analyzed for chemical testing and DPPH assay initially. In the in vivo study, 12 adult male Wistar rats were obtained. Initially, baseline parameters (Body wt, food intake, behavior changes, blood levels of superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde) and control values were assessed. Later 12 animals were divided into two treatment groups (1 and 2) and pre-treatment was given with dry powder of EO at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg orally once a day, respectively. Animals from both the groups were restrained for 2 h/day and the same parameters were analyzed at the end of 24 h and 7 days of stress induction.

Results: In vitro study, fresh juice and dry powder preparations of EO were found to be positive for all the four chemical testing. In DPPH assay, dry powder showed better antioxidant activity (97%) than the fresh juice form (57%). In vivo study, significant antioxidant activity was seen at the dose of 500 mg/kg after day 1 and 7 days of stress induction.

Conclusion: Dry powder of EO has brought out the reversal of restraint stress-induced behavioral changes and reduced food intake, body weight, and antioxidant levels.

Keywords: Antioxidant property,, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay,, Emblica officinalis,, Restraint stress,, Rats.


1. Bekris S, Antoniou K, Daskas S, Papadopoulou-Daifoti Z. Behavioural and neurochemical effects induced by chronic mild stress applied to two different rat strains. Behav Brain Res 2005;161:45-59.
2. Badhani S, Kainth A, Kabra A, Parashar B. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Benincasa hispida fruit extracts. Am J Pharm Tech Res 2013;3:336-45.
3. Abdullah N, Kamarudin W, Samicho Z, Zulkifli KS, Saidatul SW. Study on antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of various parts of wax gourd (Benincasa hispida). World Appl Sci J 2012;19:1051-6.
4. Bharathi S, Kumaran S, Suresh G, Ramesh B, Sundari MN. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Hygrophila auriculata leaf extract and assessment of their antibacterial and antioxidant properties Int J Appl Pharm 2019;10:112-8.
5. Nadheesha M, Bamunuarachchi A, Edirisinghe EM, Weerasinghe WM. Studies on antioxidant activity of Indian gooseberry fruit and seed. J Sci Univ 2007;3:83-92.
6. Luqman S, Kumar R. Correlation between scavenging property and antioxidant activity in the extracts of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.,syn. Phyllanthus emblica L. Fruit. Ann Phytomed 2012;1:54-61.
7. Bhatnagar S, Vining C, Iyer V, Kinni V. Changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, body temperature, body weight and food intake with repeated social stress exposure in rats. J Neuroendocrinol 2006;18:13-24.
8. Elangovan M, Dhanarajan M, Rajalakshmi A, Jayachitra A, Mathi P, Bhogireddy N, et al. Analysis of phytochemicals, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf extract an in vitro study. Int J Drug Dev Res 2014;6:173-80.
9. Patel RM, Patel NJ. In vitro antioxidant activity of coumarin compounds by DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. J Adv Pharm Educ Res 2011;1:52-68.
10. Garcia EJ, Oldoni TL, Alencar SM, Reis A, Loguercio AD, Grande RH, et al. Antioxidant activity by DPPH assay of potential solutions to be applied on bleached teeth. Braz Dent J 2012;23:22-7.
11. Melanathuru V, Rengarajan S, Thangavel N. Comparative study of antioxidant and anticancer activity of Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:186-93.
12. Balakrishnan BB, Krishnasamy K. Evaluation of free radical screening and antioxidant potential of Moringa concanensis Nimmo a medicinal plant used in Indian traditional medication system. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:91-7.
13. Govind P, Pandey SP. Phytochemical and toxicity study of Emblica officinalis. Int Res J Pharm 2011;2:270-2.
14. Tasanarong A, Kongkham S, Itharat A. Antioxidant effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract prevents contrast-induced acute kidney injury. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:138.
15. Bolivar VJ, Caldarone BJ, Reilly AA, Flaherty L. Habituation of activity in an open field: A survey of inbred strains and F1 hybrids. Behav Genet 2000;30:285-93.
16. Todorova I, Simeonova G, Kyuchukova D, Dinev D, Gadjeva V. Reference values of oxidative stress parameters (MDA, SOD, CAT) in dogs and cats. Comp Clin Pathol 2005;13:190-4.
17. Sadoni H, Sharma P, Waheed SM, Singh S. Phytochemical analyses and evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and toxic properties of Emblica officinalis and terminalia bellirica fruit extracts. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:96-102.
18. Jeong JY, Lee DH, Kang SS. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2013;28:288-96.
19. Kumar CP. Effect of Emblica officinalis on stress induced biochemical and psychological changes in mice. Glob J Med Res 2014;13:25-8.
20. Pal R, Gulati K, Chakraborti A, Banerjee B, Ray A. Role of free radicals in stress-induced neurobehavioural changes in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2006;4:816-20.
21. Dhingra D, Joshi P, Gupta A, Chhillar R. Possible involvement of monoaminergic neurotransmission in antidepressant-like activity of Emblica officinalis fruits in mice. CNS Neurosci Ther 2012;18:419-25.
22. Pemminati S, Gopalakrishna HN, Shenoy AK, Sahu SS, Mishra S, Meti V, et al. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extract of fruits of Emblica officinalis in mice. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 2010;1:448 54.
243 Views | 111 Downloads
How to Cite
UMAMAHESWARI A, BHUVANESWARI K, and MUTHURAMAN PL. “EFFECT OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS FRUIT DRY POWER ON BEHAVIOR CHANGES AND ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS: AN IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 7, May 2019, pp. 291-4, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i7.33619.
Original Article(s)