Phytochemistry PREPARATION OF DIFFERENT CRUDE EXTRACT AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SPIROGYRA RHIZOPUS
Preparation of crude extracts and Bioactivity studies
Keywords:Spirogyra rhizopus,, Ultrasound, Cold percolation,, Phytochemical analysis,, Antibacterial activity
Objective: The importance of this work is to prepare the crude extracts of Spirogyra rhizopus and to study the biological activity of crude extract against four bacterial strains.
Materials and Methods: Spirogyra algae collected from Jimma town, and crude extracts were prepared by cold percolation method and sonication method and further analyzed for qualitative phytochemical analysis. The efficacy of crude extracts is tested for bacterial activity by disc-diffusion method.
Results: The maximum zone of inhibition shown by the crude extract is compared to standard and control. Among the four extracts, chloroform extract displayed the promising inhibitory action against four bacterial strains.
Conclusions: The preliminary study concludes that green algae S. rhizopus is a potential source of pharmacologically active lead molecules. In vitro screening of crude extracts of green algae S. rhizopus shows promising activity against bacterial strains and thus suggests its application in drug discovery research.
Sarker SD, Latif Z, Gray AI. Natural Products Isolation. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Humana Press Totowa; 2006. p. 1-20.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as source of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J Nat Prod 2012;75:311-35.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Nat Prod Rep 2000;17:215-34.
Kinghorn AD. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:135-48.
Buss AD, Cox B, Waigh RD. Drug discovery. In: Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery. Vol. 1. Ch. 20. New Jersey: Wiley, Hoboken; 2003. p. 847-900.
Lagunin A, Filimonov D, Poroikov V. Multi-targeted natural products evaluation based on biological activity prediction with PASS. Curr Pharm Des 2010;16:1703-17.
Clardy J, Walsh C. Lessons from natural molecules. Nature 2004;432:829-37.
De Lara-Isassi G, Alvarez-Hernandez S, Collado-Vides L. Ichtyotoxic activity of extracts from Mexico-marine macroalgae. J Appl Phycol 2000;12:45-52.
Bhakuni DS, Rawat DS. Bioactive Marine Natural Products. New Delhi, India: Springer-Verlag; 2005. p. 404-52.
Goud ML, Seshika AD, Charya MA. Antibacterial activity and biomolecular composition of certain freshwater microalgae from river godavari (India). Sci World J 2007;2:19-23.
Tang HF, Yang-Hua Y, Yao XS, Xu QZ, Zhang SY, Lin HW. Bioactive steroids from the brown alga Sargassum carpophyllum. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2002;4:95-101.
Taskin E, Ozturk M, Taskin E, Kurt O. Antibacterial activities of some marine algae from the aegean sea (Turkey). Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6:2746-51.
Serkedjieva J. Antiviral activity of the red marine alga Ceramium rubrum. Phytother Res 2004;18:480-3.
Tuney I, Cadirci B, Unal D, Sukatar A. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts of marine algae from the coast of Urla (Izmir, Turkey). Turk J Biol 2006;30:171-5.
Patra JK, Rath SK, Jena K, Rathod VK, Thatoi HN. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of seaweed (Sargassum sp.) extract: A study on inhibition of glutathione-stransferase activity. Turk J Biol 2008;32:119-25.
Yu Q, Matheickal JT, Yin P, Kaewsarn P. Heavy metal uptake capacities of common marine macroalgal biomass. Water Res 1999;33:1534-7.
Far?as S, Arisnabarreta SP, Smichowski P. Levels of essential and potentially toxic trace metals in Antarctic macro algae. Spectrochim Acta Part B 2002;57:2133-40.
Sudhakar K, Rajesh M, Premalatha M. A mathematical model to assess the potential of algal bio-fuels in India. Energy Sources Part A 2012;34:1-7.
Heydarzadeh JK, Amini MA, Khalizadeh M, Pazouki AA, Ghoreyshi M, Najafpour GD. Esterification of free fatty acids by heterogeneous alumina-zirconia catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. World Appl Sci J 2010;9:1306-12.
Mitova MI, Usov AL, Bilan MI, Stefanov KL, Dimitrova- Konaklieva SD, Tonov DP, et al. Sterols and polysaccharides in freshwater algae Spirogyra and Mougeotia Zeit. Nat C 1999;54:1016-20.
Phinyo K, Khanongnuch C, Pekkoh J, Pumas C, Peerapornpisal Y. Nutritional Values and Polysaccharides in Tao (Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing) from Phare Province Proceeding, The 2nd MJU-Phrae National Research Conference; 2012. p. 50-6.
Peerapornpisal Y. Edible freshwater macroalgae in northern Thailand. Fish Sci J 2007;1:178-88.
Amornlerdpison D, Duangjun K, Kanjanapothi D, Peerapornpisal Y. Gastroprotective activity of Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kutzing. KKU Sci J 2012;40:236-41.
Lailerd N, Pongchaidecha A, Amornlerdpison D, Peerapornpisal Y. Beneficial effects of Spirogyra neclecta (Hassall) extract on glycemic and lipidemic status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with enriched fat. Ann Nutr Metab 2009;55:709-16.
Peerapornpisal Y, Punyoyai T, Amormledpison D. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kutzing. KKU Sci J 2012;40:228-35.
Sofowara A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nded. Sunshine house Ibadan: Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd.; 1993. p. 81-93.
Jones WP, Kinghorn AD. Natural product isolation: Extraction of plant secondary metabolites. Methods Biotechnol 2005;20:323-51.
Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol 1966;45:493-6.
Ansari N, Hemavani C, Thippeswamy B. Evaluation of antimicrobial property of Spirogyra species. Int Multidiscip Res J 2012;2:13-5.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.