• GAJENDRA NATH MAITY Department of Microbiology, Panskura Banamali College, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India.
  • JOY SARKAR Department of Botany, Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
  • SOMANJANA KHATUA Department of Botany, Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
  • SOUMITRA MONDAL Department of Chemistry, Panskura Banamali College, Panskura R.S., Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India.
  • KRISHNENDU ACHARYA Department of Chemistry, Panskura Banamali College, Panskura R.S., Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India.


Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a low-cost green synthesis approach for the formulation of Ag-NPs applying polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of a mangrove plant of Sundarban.

Methods: Fresh and healthy fruits were collected from Ceriops decandra plant. Sufficient amount of carbohydrates was extracted from those fruits and the physicochemical characterization of the polysaccharide was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry. The respective polysaccharide was further applied to generate the Ag-NPs which were characterized by UV visible, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, EDAX, and X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial efficacy of the Ag-NPs was also determined against some pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria using the microdilution method.

Results: Glucose and galactose are the major monomers among the extracted carbohydrates. Various types of spectral analysis confirmed the formation of Ag-NPs. The green synthesized Ag-NPs have the average diameter of about 28 nm. Furthermore, the green synthesized Ag-NPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against some pathogenic Gram-positive (L. cytomonogenes, Bacillus Subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli) bacteria.

Conclusion: The green synthesis of Ag-NPs using plant polysaccharide was an environment-friendly and cost-effective method as compared to the conventional physical and chemical synthesis techniques.

Keywords: Green synthesis;, Ceriops decandra;, Polysaccharide;, Silver Nanoparticle;, Bacterial Growth


1. Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A. Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv 2009;27:76-83.
2. Mohammadlou M, Maghsoudi H, Jafarizadeh-Malmiri H. A review on green silver nanoparticles based on plants: Synthesis, potential applications and eco-friendly approach. Int Food Res J 2016;23:446-63.
3. Ydollahi M, Ahari H, Anvar AA. Antibacterial activity of silver-nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus. Afr J Microbiol Res 2016;10:850-5.
4. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise. J Adv Res 2016;7:17-28.
5. Zhao HQ, Aisa HA, Rasulov B, Rustamova N, Yili AR. Synthesis of Ag-NP on the basis of low and high molar mass exopolysaccharides of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 36 and its antimicrobial activity against some pathogens. Folia Microbiol 2016;61:283-93.
6. Bora T, Dutta J. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment – a review. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014;14:613-26.
7. Jain P, Pradeep T. Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter. Biotechnol Bioeng 2005;90:59-63.
8. Rajeshkumar SR. Synthesis of Ag-NP using fresh bark of Pongamia pinnata and characterization of its antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative pathogens. Resour Technol 2016;2:30-5.
9. Railean-Plugaru V, Pomastowski P, Wypij M, Szultka-Mlynska M, Rafinska K, Golinska P, et al. Study of silver nanoparticles synthesized by acidophilic strain of actinobacteria isolated from the of Picea sitchensis forest soil. J Appl Microbiol 2016;120:1250-63.
10. Saha S, Sarkar J, Chattopadhyay D, Patra S, Chakraborty A, Acharya K, et al. Production of silver nanoparticles by a phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris nodulosa and its antimicrobial activity. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2010;5:887-95.
11. Sarkar J, Dey P, Saha S, Acharya K. Mycosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles. Micro Nano Lett 2011;6:599-602.
12. Sarkar J, Ray S, Chattopadhyay D, Laskar A, Acharya K. Mycogenesis of gold nanoparticles using a phytopathogen Alternaria alternata. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2012;35:637-43.
13. Sarkar J, Ghosh M, Mukherjee A, Chattopadhyay D, Acharya K. Biosynthesis and safety evaluation of ZnO nanoparticles. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2014;37:165-71.
14. Sarkar J, Acharya K. Alternaria alternata culture filtrate mediated bioreduction of chloroplatinate to platinum nanoparticles. Synth React Inorg Met Nano Metal Chem 2017;47:365-9.
15. Sarkar J, Mollick MM, Chattopadhyay D, Acharya K. An eco-friendly route of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles formation and investigation of the mechanical properties of the HPMC-?-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2017;40:351-9.
16. Dasgupta A, Sarkar J, Ghosh M, Bhattacharya A, Mukherjee A, Chattopadhyay D, et al. Green conversion of graphene oxide to graphene nanosheets and its biosafety study. PLoS One 2017;12:e0171607.
17. Acharya K, Sarkar J. Bryo-synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2014;29:82-6.
18. Kanchana R, Zantye P. Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles with diverse applications. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:124-8.
19. Joshi SC, Kaushik U, Upadhyaya A, Sharma P. Green technology mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Momordica charantia fruit extract and its bactericidal activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:196.
20. Watt J, Breyer-Brandwijk M. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 2nd ed. Edinburgh and London: E & S. Livingstone Ltd.; 1962.
21. Kathiresan K, Ramanathan T. Medicinal Plants of Parangipettai Coast, Monograph. Parangipettai, India: Annamalai University; 1997.
22. Bandaranayake WM. Traditional and medicinal uses of mangroves. Mangroves Salt Marshes 1998;2:133-48.
23. Duke J, Wain K. Computer Index with more than 85,000 Entries. In: Medicinal Plants of the World. Vol. 3. Beltsville, Maryland: Plants Genetics and Germplasm Institute, Agriculture Research Service; 1981.
24. Banerjee D, Chakrabarti S, Hazra AK, Banerjee S, Ray J, Mukherjee B. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of some mangroves in Sundarbans. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:805-10.
25. Uddin SJ, Shilpi JA, Barua J, Rouf R. Antinociceptive activity of Ceriops decandra leaf and pneumatophore. Fitoterapia 2005;76:261-3.
26. Nabeel MA, Kathiresan K, Manivannan S. Antidiabetic activity of the mangrove species Ceriops decandra in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Diabetes 2010;2:97-103.
27. Sakagami H, Kashimata M, Toguchi M, Satoh K, Odanaka Y, Ida Y, et al. Radical modulation activity of lignins from a mangrove plant, Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou. In vivo 1998;12:327-32.
28. Vadlapudi V, Naidu K. In vitro antimicrobial activity Ceriops decandra against selected aquatic, human and phytopathogens. Int J Chem Tech Res 2009;1:1236-8.
29. Ravikumar S, Gnanadesigan M, Suganthi P, Ramalakshmi A. Antibacterial potential of chosen mangrove plants against isolated urinary tract infectious bacterial pathogens. Int J Med Med Sci 2010;2:94-9.
30. Chandrasekaran M, Kannathasan K, Venkatesalu V, Prabhakar K. Antibacterial activity of some salt marsh halophytes and mangrove plants against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2009;25:155-60.
31. Mecozzi M. Estimation of total carbohydrate amount in environmental samples by the phenol-sulphuric acid method assisted by multivariate calibration. Chemometr Intell Lab Syst 2005;79:84-90.
32. Masuko T, Minami A, Iwasaki N, Majima T, Nishimura S, Lee YC, et al. Carbohydrate analysis by a phenol-sulfuric acid method in microplate format. Anal Biochem 2005;339:69-72.
33. Saha S, Khatua S, Paloi S, Acharya K. Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of water soluble polysaccharides from Pleurotus florida. Int J Green Pharm 2013;7:182-8.
34. Khatua S, Acharya K. Influence of extraction parameters on physico-chemical characters and antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides from Macrocybe gigantea (Massee) Pegler & Lodge. J Food Sci Technol 2016;53:1878-88.
35. Stojkovi? D, Reis FS, Ferreira IC, Barros L, Glamo?lija J, ?iri? A. Tirmania pinoyi: Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities and in situ control of Staphylococcus aureus in chicken soup. Food Res Int 2013;53:56-62.
36. Sarkar J, Chattopadhyay D, Patra S, Deo SS, Sinha S, Ghosh M. Alternaria alternata mediated synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles and their genotoxic activity. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2011;6:563-73.
37. Jin L, Bai R. Mechanisms of lead adsorption on chitosan/PVA hydrogel beads. Langmuir 2002;18:9765-70.
38. Sanghi R, Verma P. Biomimetic synthesis and characterisation of protein capped silver nanoparticles. Bioresour Technol 2009;100:501 4.
39. Sathyavathi R, Krishna MB, Rao SV, Saritha R, Rao DN. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract and their application in nonlinear optics. Adv Sci Lett 2010;3:1-6.
40. Socrates G. Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies. 3rd ed. Wiley Publisher; 2004.
41. Barth A. Infrared spectroscopy of proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 2007;1767:1073-101.
42. Singh AK, Talat M, Singh DP, Srivastava ON. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by natural precursor clove and their functionalization with amine group. J Nanopart Res 2010;12:1667-75.
43. Mollick MM, Bhowmick B, Maity D, Mondal D, Roy I, Sarkar J, et al. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles-based nanofluids and investigation of their antimicrobial activities. Microfluid Nanofluidics 2014;16:541-51.
326 Views | 126 Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)