THE EFFECT OF LIMAN LEAVES EXTRACT ON FETAL RAT DEVELOPMENT
Objective: The objective of the study was to observe the effect of liman leaves extract on fetal rat development and provide safety information for its use during pregnancy.
Methods: Estrus cycles of female Wistar rats were observed and mated to male rats, 0 day of pregnancy determined after finding a vaginal plug or in a vaginal smear, there was sperm. Sample was administered orally using sonde with a single administration on the 11th day of pregnancy, at doses of 3750 mg/kg bw, 1185 mg/kg bw, and 375 mg/kg bw. On the 19th day of pregnancy, the rats were sacrificed and then observed the number of implantation, corpus luteum, intrauterine death, and fetal abnormalities.
Results: The dose of 375 mg/kg bw exposed the highest average implantation rate (13.20%) and the largest number of corpus luteum (13.90%). The highest total intrauterine death was presented by dose of 3750 mg/kg bw and significantly different (p<0.05) compared to the control group. The dose of 375 mg/kg bw expressed the highest percentage of embryos with resorption (19.03%), while the lowest average fetal body was shown by 3750 mg/kg bw compared to the other groups. The highest percentage of external abnormalities was given by the dose of 375 mg/kg bw (12.91%), which abnormalities found were dwarf, cleft palate, hydrocephalus, short sleeve, and hematoma.
Conclusion: Liman leaves extract was mild teratogenic on Wistar rat fetus.
2. Ho WY, Yeap SK, Ho CL, Abdul Rahim R, Alitheen NB. Hepatoprotective activity of Elephantopus scaber on alcohol induced liver damage in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:417953.
3. Nataraj KS, Reddy KS, Prashanth K, Swamy BM. PP-041 Hepatoprotective potential of root extracts of Elephantopus scaber L. on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide induced hepatitis in rats. Int J Infect Dis 2009;13:S61.
4. Hung HF, Hou CW, Chen YL, Lin CC, Fu HW, Wang JS, et al. Elephantopus scaber inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by suppression of signaling pathways in rats. Am J Chin Med 2011;39:705-17.
5. Sagar R, Sahoo HB. Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber L. Leaves. Indian J Pharmacol 2012;44:398-401.
6. Singh S, Krishna V, Mankani K, Manjunatha B, Vidya S, Manohara Y. Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts and deoxyelephantopin isolated from Elephantopus scaber Linn. Indian J Pharmacol 2005;37:238-42.
7. Avani K, Neeta S. A study of the antimicrobial activity of Elephantopus scaber. Indian J Pharmacol 2005;37:126-7.
8. Daisy P, Jasmine R, Ignacimuthu S, Murugan E. A novel steroid from Elephantopus scaber L. An ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic activity. Phytomedicine 2009;16:252-7.
9. Huang CC, Lo CP, Chiu CY, Shyur LF. Deoxyelephantopin, a novel multifunctional agent, suppresses mammary tumour growth and lung metastasis and doubles survival time in mice. Br J Pharmacol2010;159:856-71.
10. Lee WL, Shyur LF. Deoxyelephantopin impedes mammary adenocarcinoma cell motility by inhibiting calpain-mediated adhesion dynamics and inducing reactive oxygen species and aggresome formation. Free Radic Biol Med 2012;52:1423-36.
11. Xu G, Liang Q, Gong Z, Yu W, He S, Xi L, et al. Antitumor activities of the four sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus scaber L. Exp Oncol 2006;28:106-9.
12. Geetha BS, Nair MS, Latha PG, Remani P. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. Inhibits human lymphocyte proliferation and the growth of tumour cell lines and induces apoptosis in vitro. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012;2012:721285.
13. OECD. Guideline for Testing of Chemicals: Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study No. 414. Washington DC: OECD Publication and Information Center; 2001. p. 1-11.
14. Taylor P. Practical Teratology. London: Academic Press; 1986.
15. Sukandar EY, Kurniati NF, Fitria V. Evaluation of teratogenicity effects of ethanolic extracts of binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) steenis) in Wistar rat. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:422-6.
16. Ahmed M, Azmat A. Effects of unani anxiolytics (somina) on general reproductive performance and teratology in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9: 30-4.
17. Wilson JG, Fraser FC. Handbook of Teratology. General Principles and Etiology. Vol. 1. New York: Plenum Press; 1977. p. 49-72.
18. Lestari MW, Fidrianny I, Yusuf AT, Soemardji AA. Brine shrimp teratogenic screening test on some selected plants. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:96-9.
19. Dawson AL, Riehle-Colarusso T, Reefhuis J, Arena JF, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Maternal exposure to methotrexate and birth defects: A population-based study. Am J Med Genet A 2014;164A:2212 6.
20. Jamkhdane PG, Chintawar KD, Chdanak PG. Teratogenicity: A mechanism based short review on common teratogenic agents. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2014;4:421-32.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.