• SUBRAMANIAN S University of Madras


Objective: Although Physalis peruviana Linn. fruit commonly known as golden berries, Cape gooseberries and wild tomato is highly esteemed
by consumers all over the world, scientific reports about the fruits are scarce and there was no systemic study in the literature regarding the
phytoconsituents present in the fruits of Indian P. peruviana L. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine the total flavonoids as well as
phenolic content in the fruits of P. peruviana L.
Methods: The ethanolic extract of P. peruviana L. fruits was subjected to phytochemical screening and the total flavonoids as well as phenolic contents
were estimated according to standard protocols. The extract was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis for the identification
of major flavonoids and the individual flavonoids were characterized by various spectral studies.
Results: The qualitative analysis revealed the presence of biologically active secondary metabolites such as phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, sterols,
saponins, tannins, lactones and alkaloids in the fruit extract. The fruit extract was also found to contain significant amounts of both phenolic
compounds, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol.
Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that many compounds rather than a single component of P. peruviana L. fruit is responsible for
its pharmacological as well as beneficial effects. The data also provide a rationale for the use of golden berries in the traditional medicine for various

Keywords: Physalis peruviana L., Cape gooseberry, Flavonoids, Phenols, Phytochemicals.


1. Abdel Moneim AE, El-Deib KM. The possible protective effects of
Physalis peruviana on carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity in
male albino rats. Life Sci J 2012;9:1038-52.
2. Luis AP, Claudia AP, Eduardo SC, Misael C. Physalis peruviana
Linnaeus, the multiple properties of a highly functional fruit: A review.
Food Res Int 2011;44(7):1733-40.
3. Salazar MR, Jones JW, Chaves B, Cooman A. A model for the potential
production and dry matter distribution of Cape gooseberry (Physalis
peruviana L.). Scientia Horticulturae 2008;115(2):142-8.
4. Ramadan MF, Mörsel JT. Impact of enzymatic treatment on chemical
composition, physicochemical properties and radical scavenging
activity of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice. J Sci Food Agric
5. Ramadan MF, Zayed R, Abozid M, Asker MM. Apricot and pumpkin
oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats
fed a high fat diet. Grasas Aceites 2011;62:443-52.
6. Ramadan MF. Physalis peruviana pomace supressess highcholesterol
diet-induced hypercholestrolemia in rats. Grasas Y Aceites
7. Wu SJ, Tsai JY, Chang SP, Lin DL, Wang SS, Huang SN, et al.
Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and
anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana. J Ethnopharmacol
8. Sathyadevi M, Suchithra ER, Subramanian S. Physalis peruviana Linn.
Fruit extract improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates hyperglycemia
in high-fat diet low dose STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. J Pharm Res
9. Harbone JB. Phytochemical Methods. London: Chapman and Hall;
1998. p. 117-9.
10. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Drugs containing glycosides,
drugs containing tannins, lipids and protein alkaloids. Text Book of
Pharmacognosy: Carbohydrate and Derived Products. 7th ed. India:
Nitrali Prakashan; 2001. p. 133-66, 167-254, 255-269, 272-310, 428-523.
11. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total
phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of
Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 1999;299:152-78.
12. Kumazawa S, Taniguchi M, Suzuki Y, Shimura MK, Won MS,
Nakayama T. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols in carob pods. J Agric
Food Chem 2002;50:373-7.
13. Samatha T, Shyamsundarachary R, Srinivas P, Swamyv NR.
Quantification of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in extracts
of Oroxylum indicum L. kurz. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(4):177-9.
14. Quettier-Deleu C, Gressier B, Vasseur J, Dine T, Brunet C, Luyckx M,
et al. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat
(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour. J Ethnopharmacol
15. Bengoechea ML, Sancho AI, Bartolome´B, Estrella C, Go´mez-
Cordove ST, Herna´ndez J. Phenolic composition of industrially
manufactured pure´es and concentrates from peach and apple fruits.
J Agric Food Chem 1997;45:407-5.
16. Schieber A, Keller P, Carle R. Determination of phenolic acids
and flavonoids of apple and pear by high-performance liquid
chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2001;910(2):265-73.
17. Butsat S, Weerapreeyakul N, Siriamornpun S. Changes in phenolic
acids and antioxidant activity in Thai rice husk at five growth stages
during grain development. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57(11):4566-71.
18. Kumar S, Pooja M, Harika K, Haswitha E, Nagabhushanamma G,
Vidyavathi N. In-vitro antioxidant activities, total phenolics and
flavonoid contents of whole plant of Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.).
Asian J Pharm Clin 2013;6(2):249-51.
19. Somit D, Priyankar D, Kumar CT. Quantification and correlation
of the bioactive phytochemicals of croton bonplandianum leaves
of sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal. Asian J Pharm Clin Res
20. Wu SJ, Chang SP, Lin DL, Wang SS, Hou FF, Ng LT. Supercritical
carbon dioxide extract of Physalis peruviana induced cell cycle arrest
and apoptosis in human lung cancer H661 cells. Food Chem Toxicol
21. Ahmed LA. Renoprotective effect of Egyptian cape gooseberry
fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) against acute renal injury in rats.
ScientificWorldJournal 2014;2014:273870.
22. Rop O, Mlcek J, Jurikova T, Valsikova M. Bioactive content and
antioxidant capacity of Cape gooseberry fruit. Cent Eur J Biol
23. Bravo K, Sepulveda-Ortega S, Lara-Guzman O, Navas-Arboleda AA,
Osorio E. Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds
and antioxidant properties in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).
J Sci Food Agric 2014.
24. Gruz j, Ayaz, FA, Tourn H, Strnad M. Phenolic acid content and radical
scavenging activity of extracts from medlar (Mespilus germanica L.)
fruit at different stages of ripening. Food Chem 2011;124:271-7.
25. Casterjon AD, Eichholz I, Rohn S, Kroh LW, Huyskens-Keil S.
Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of high bush blueberry
(Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during fruit maturation and ripening. Food
Chem 2008;109:564-72.
26. Kobayashi H, Wang C, Pomper KW. Phenolic content and antioxidant
capacity of pawpaw (Asiminatriloba L.) at different ripening stages.
HortScience 2008;43:268-70.
27. Pedisic S, Levaj B, Dragovic-Uzelac V, Kos K. Physicochemical
composition, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of sour cherry
cv. Marasca during ripening. Agric Conspectus Sci 2007;72:295-300.
28. Breitmaier E, Voelter W. Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy. New York:
VCH Verlagsgesells Chaft mbH; 1989. p. 450-7.
29. Agrawal PK. Carbon-13 NMR of Flavonoids. New York: Elsevier;
1989. p. 150-8.
30. Andersen ØM, Markham KR. Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry
and Applications. London: CRC Press; 1989. p. 38-142.
31. Liu XQ, Chen FK, Wu LJ. Studies on the chemical constituents of
Polygonum bistorta L. J Shenyang Pharm Univ 2003;21:187-9.
961 Views | 4754 Downloads
How to Cite
M, S., and S. S. “EXTRACTION, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE FLAVONOIDS FROM THE FRUITS OF PHYSALIS PERUVIANA LINN EXTRACT”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 152-7, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/3438.
Original Article(s)