• GAYATRI SUJIVE Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
  • BENSAM T MATHEW Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
  • MAMATHA K Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
  • ANURADHA HV Department of Pharmacology, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.


Objective: The process of aging involves an individual’s structural and functional depravity of their organ systems often results in compromised pharmacological principles of the prescribed drugs. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy along with change in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses of drugs predispose the elderly to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The present study was aimed to identify and report the characteristics and incidence of ADRs among geriatrics in an outpatient clinic.

Methods: This was a 6-month prospective hospital-based observational study among patients of either sex aged 60 years and above visiting an outpatient clinic at the study site. The suspected ADRs were categorized according to the Will’s and Brown classification system. Causality of these ADRs was verified by applying the WHO-UMC criteria and the Naranjo’s scale. Severity and preventability of the ADRs were classified using the modified Hartwig and Siegel scale and modified Schumock and Thornton scale, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors for developing ADRs.

Results: Among the 365 patients monitored, 57 (15%) patients experienced 60 ADRs. Therapeutic classes of drugs frequently associated with ADRs were the drugs used in hypertension (27 [45%]). Patients presenting with amlodipine (9 [15%]) induced pedal edema were observed with the highest frequency of ADRs. Polypharmacy (OR: 1.619, 95% confidence interval: 0.957−2.741, p=0.021) was observed as the influential risk factor for ADRs.

Conclusion: Pharmacist’s services and involvement in geriatric patient’s centered care can be associated with their improved health, quality of life and economic outcomes, a reduction in medicine-related adverse events, and limiting the morbidity and mortality in this age band.

Keywords: Geriatrics, Outpatient, Adverse drug reactions


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How to Cite
GAYATRI SUJIVE, BENSAM T MATHEW, MAMATHA K, and ANURADHA HV. “PREDICTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG GERIATRIC PATIENTS IN AN OUTPATIENT CLINIC”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 9, July 2019, pp. 106-10, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i9.34405.
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