OSTEOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF SEX FROM MASTOID TRIANGLE IN MALAYSIAN POPULATION
Keywords:Mastoid,, Sex,, Computed tomography scan,, Anthropology,, Forensic
Objective: Determination of sex is one of the most important parameters for conducting biological profile of unknown skeletal remains in anatomical anthropology and forensic medicine. Mastoid bone is useful for the identification of sex, as it is the most protected bone and is resistant to damage, due to its anatomical position at the base of the skull. The aim of this study was to develop new equation for the estimation of sex from mastoid triangle in the Malaysian population.
Methods: About 10 parameters were studied on 388 computed tomography scans of crania in 231 males and 157 females. The parameters comprised three sides of mastoid triangle, its perimeter and area on both sides. T-test was used to compare between the right and left sides and between males and females. Stepwise discriminant function was used to reveal the best discriminatory parameter and its classification accuracy.
Results: Comparison of means by T-test revealed no difference between the right and left sides in both sexes. T-test showed a significant difference between males and females for all parameters. Perimeter of mastoid triangle was found to be the best parameter by stepwise discriminant analysis. The equation based on perimeter of mastoid triangle was developed with 84.4% classification accuracy.
Conclusion: The developed equation could be used to assess sexual dimorphism of fragmented Malaysian crania with intact mastoid region. The achieved cross-validated classification was relatively high compared to that in other previous studies.
2. Cattaneo C. Forensic anthropology: Development of a classical discipline in the new millennium. Forensic Sci Int 2007;165:185-93.
3. Chandrakanth HV, Kanchan T, Krishan K, Arun M, Kumar GP. Estimation of age from human sternum: An autopsy study on a sample from South India. Int J Leg Med 2012;126:863-8.
4. Krishan K, Kanchan T, Ghosh A, Menezes RG. Forensic anthropological casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation. J Forensic Nurs 2012;8:45-50.
5. Thompson TJ. Recent advances in the study of burned bone and their implications for forensic anthropology. Forensic Sci Int 2004;146:S203 5.
6. Thompson TJ. Heat-induced dimensional changes in bone and their consequences for forensic anthropology. J Forensic Sci 2005;50:185 93.
7. Fairgrieve S. Forensic Cremation: Recovery and Analysis. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2008.
8. Gonçalves D, Thompson TJ, Cunha E. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains. J Forensic Leg Med 2013;20:906 11.
9. Schmidt CW. The recovery and study of burned human teeth. In: Schmidt CW, Symes SA, editors. The Analysis of Burned Human Remains. London: Academic Press; 2008. p. 55-74.
10. Lain R, Taylor J, Croker S, Craig P, Graham J. Comparative dental anatomy in disaster victim identification: Lessons from the 2009 Victorian Bushfires. Forensic Sci Int 2011;205:36-9.
11. Madadin M, Menezes RG, Al Dhafeeri O, Kharoshah MA, Al Ibrahim R, Nagesh KR, et al. Evaluation of the mastoid triangle for determining sexual dimorphism: A Saudi population based study. Forensic Sci Int 2015;254:244-e1.
12. Syngle T, Kaur S, Garg N. Osteoporoticfracture risk in rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:106-9.
13. France DL. Observational and metric analysis of sex in the skeleton. In: Reichs KJ, editor. Forensic Osteology. Advances in the Identification of human Remains. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1986. p. 163-86.
14. Hsiao TH, Chang HP, Liu KM. Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of lateral radiographic cephalometry. J Forensic Sci 1996;41:792-5.
15. Iscan MY, Helmer RP. Forensic Analysis of the Skull in Morphologic and Osteometric Assessment of Age, Sex, and Race From the Skull. New York: Willy Liss; 1993. p. 71-83.
16. Paiva LA, Segre M. Sexing the human skull through the mastoid process. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2003;58:15-20.
17. Saini V, Srivastava R, Rai RK, Shamal SN, Singh TB, Tripathi SK. Sexestimation from the mastoid process among North Indians. J Forensic Sci 2012;57:434-9.
18. Kemkes A, Göbel T. Metric assessment of the “mastoid triangle” for sex determination: A validation study. J Forensic Sci 2006;51:985-9.
19. Nagaoka T, Shizushima A, Sawada J, Tomo S, Hoshino K, Sato H, et al. Sex determination using mastoid process measurements: Standards for Japanese human skeletons of the medieval and early modern periods. Anthro Sci 2008;116:105-13.
20. Galdames IC, Matamala DA, Smith RL. Sex determination using mastoid process measurements in Brazilian skulls. Int J Morphol 2008;26:941e4.
21. Manoonpol C, Plakornkul V. Sex determination using mastoid process measurement in Thais. J Med Assoc Thailand 2012;95:423.
22. Gupta AD, Banerjee A, Kumar A, Rao SR, Jose J. Discriminant function analysis of mastoid measurements in sex determination. J Life Sci 2012;4:1-5.
23. Allam FA, Allam MF. Sex discrimination of mastoid process by anthropometric measurements using multidetector computed tomography in Egyptian adult population. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2016;6:361-9.
24. Devi S, Singh K. Risk factors, prevalence and diagnosis of Hutchinson Hutchinson gliford syndrome with special reference to case reports. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:1-5.
25. Ibrahim A, Alias A, Nor FM, SwarhibM, Bakar AN, Das S. Study of sexual dimorphism of Malaysian crania: An important step in identification of the skeletal remains. Anat Cell Biol 2017;50:86-92.
26. Patnaik VV, Phatak A. Determination of sex by mastoid process by discriminant functions analysis. J Anat Soc India 2010;59:222-8.
27. Kanchan T, Gupta A, Krishan K. Estimation of sex from mastoid triangle-A craniometric analysis. J Forensic Leg Med 2013;20:855-60.
28. Singh RP, Verma SK, Tyagi AK. Determination of sex by measurement of area of Mastoidtriangle in human skull. Indian Internet J Forensic Med Toxic 2008;6:29-43.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.