ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC PROPERTY OF TECTONA GRANDIS METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT IN SWISS ALBINO MICE
Objective: Tectona grandis which is well known as teak possesses a wide range of applications in Indian and African folklore medicine. All the plant parts are having diverse bioactivities, especially the seeds, having hair growth-promoting activity, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. Xanthones, proteins, amino acids, and fatty acids have been isolated from the oil and seeds of T. grandis.
Methods: The present study was to explore the antinociceptive properties of methanolic seed extract of T. grandis. Dried seeds of the plant were defatted with non-polar solvents such as petroleum ether and extracted with methanol. Acetic acid-induced writhing test, tail flick test, and tail immersion test were employed for the extract using Swiss albino mice.
Results: From the results, it is clear that the methanolic teak seed extract is safe at 1000 mg/kg and having a potent analgesic property (at a dose of 200–250 mg/kg body weight) by inhibiting pain response time.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the methanolic seed extract of T. grandis is analgesic in nature. It is considered as safe and the activity may be due to the presence of various bioactive chemicals such as flavonoids, xanthones, and glycosides.
2. US National Plant Germplasm System. GRIN Taxonomy for Plants- Tectona. United States Department of Agriculture. United States: US National Plant Germplasm System; 2013. p. 22.
3. Kaosa-ard A. Teak its natural distribution and related factors. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 1981;29:55-74.
4. Nayeem N, Karvekar MD. Analgesic and anti inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of the frontal leaves of Tectona grandis. Int J Pharmacol 2010;8:1531-76.
5. Ghaisas M, Navghare V, Takawale A, Zope V, Tanwar M, Deshpande A, et al. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. On dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;122:304-7.
6. Gupta PK, Singh P. A naphthoquinone derivative from Tectona grandis (Linn.). J Asian Nat Prod Res 2004;6:237-40.
7. Astiti NP, Suprapta DN. Antifungal activity of Teak (Tectona grandis L.F) against Arthrinium Phaeospermum (Corda), the cause of wood decay on Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg. J Int Soc Southeast Asian Agric Sci 2009;18:62-9.
8. Goswami DV, Sonawane LL, Nirmal SA, Patil MJ. Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Tectona grandis Linn. Bark. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2009;1:10-6.
9. Shruthi DP, Sunith KE, Kumari EH, Govindappa M, Siddalingeshwera KG. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of different extract from leaf, bark and stem of Tectona grandis. Int J Res Pharmacol Pharmacother 2009;1:140-6.
10. Ramachandran S, Kanth BR, Rajasekaran A, Kumar KT. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of methanolic extract of Tectona grandis flowers. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2009;1:155-8.
11. Vipin PS, Samanta KC. Hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Tectona grandis Linn. Root in alloxan induced diabetic rat. J Appl Pharm Sci 2009;1:106-9.
12. Ramachandran S, Rajasekaran A, Kumar KT. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract of Tectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:624-31.
13. Priyanka S, Pooja VS, Samanta KC, Rathore KS. Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of root of Tectona grandis on albino rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol 2009;1:28-33.
14. Majumdar M, Nayeem N, Kamath JV, Asad M. Evaluation of Tectona grandis leaves for wound healing activity. Pak J Pharm Sci 2007;20:120-4.
15. Goel RK, Pathak NK, Biswas M, Pandey VB, Sanyal AK. Effect of lapachol, a naphthaquinone isolated from Tectona grandis, on experimental peptic ulcer and gastric secretion. J Pharm Pharmacol 1987;39:138-40.
16. Balassiano IT, De Paulo SA, Henriques Silva N, Cabral MC, da Gloria da Costa Carvalho M. Demonstration of the lapachol as a potential drug for reducing cancer metastasis. Oncol Rep 2005;13:329-33.
17. Hidayat H, Karsten K, Ahmed VU, Miana GA, Green IR. Lapachol an overview. ARKIVOC 2007;2:145-71.
18. Bitchagno GT, Sama Fonkeng L, Kopa TK, Tala MF, Kamdem Wabo H, Tume CB, et al. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract and compounds from fruits of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae). BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:265.
19. Smolinske SC, Hall AH, Vandenberg SA. Toxic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in overdose. Drug Saf 1990;5:252-74.
20. Dokuparthi SK, Khan A, Anusha A, Bee M, Shaibaz MD, Shahajeb S, et al. Acute oral toxicity study of Tectona grandis Linn. methanolic seed extract in albino mice. J Phytopharmacol 2017;6:183-5.
21. Koster R, Anderson M, De Beer EJ. Acetic acid-induced analgesic screening. Fed Proc 1959;18:412-7.
22. Iyabo M, Abubakar A, Abubakar K, Tijjani R, Giaze. Analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Boswellia dalzielii (Burseraceae) stem bark. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:139-42.
23. Fred E, D’Amour, Smoth DL. A method for determining the loss of pain sensation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1941;72:74-9.
24. Zahid H, Rizwani GH, Shareef H, Ahmed M, Hina B. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast.) hook. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:21821.
25. Raj PP. Pain mechanisms. In: Pain Medicine: A Comprehensive Review. 1st ed. Saint Louis, MO, USA: Mosby-Year Book; 1996. p. 12-23.
26. Vasudevan M, Gunnam KK, Parle M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Daucus carota seeds extract. J Health Sci 2006;52:598-606.
27. Fields HL. In: Day PW, editor. Analgesic Drugs. 1st ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill; 1987. p. 272.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.