ABSTARCT, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Result and Discussion, conclusion, Reference

  • NIRMALA A Department of Biotechnology, Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • MAZHER SULTANA Department of Zoology, Presidency College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • SHARON NS Department of Biochemistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, (Deemed to be University), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Objective: The objective of the present study was to find a non-invasive method of sample collection that can be used to diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: In this study, saliva as a diagnostic fluid was collected noninvasively from subjects with modest training and this offers a cost-effective method for screening diabetes. To evaluate the association of blood glucose level with salivary glucose in Type-II diabetic (Type-II D) patients, a case– control study was conducted on 200 test and 200 healthy control people in selected study village in Kanchipuram (District). The glucose level was measured in saliva and blood plasma by glucose oxidase and peroxidase method.

Results: A highly significant positive correlation between fasting salivary glucose (69.377±14.329 mg/dl) and plasma glucose (249.935±64.65 mg/dl) in diabetic patients and in control group, plasma glucose level 117.545±10.595 and saliva glucose level 49.271±13.795 mg/dl was observed.

Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that fasting salivary glucose level can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic, as well as monitoring tool to assess the glycemic status of Type-II DM patients.

Keywords: Blood glucose level, Salivary glucose level, Diabetes mellitus, Saliva, Hyperglycemia


1. Rath D, Panigrahy SR, Panigrahi SK, Kar DB, Maharana L. Antidiabetic effect of extracts of blumealaceradc in streptozotocin induced hyperglycemic rats. Inter J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:218-23.
2. Bhargavi G, Josthna P, Naidu CV. Antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of Polyalthia cerasoides stem bark in streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats. Inter J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:154-8.
3. Joshi SR, Parikh RM. India--diabetes capital of the world: Now heading towards hypertension. J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55:323-4.
4. Kumar BP, Dudala SR, Rao AR. Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale a revision of economic parameter for 2012. Inter J Res Dev Health 2013;1:2-4.
5. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.
6. Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C, Shaw J. IDF diabetes atlas: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;94:311-21.
7. Diabetes Facts. In: IDF Diabetes Atlas. 6th ed. 2013. Available from: [Last accessed on 2014 Dec 12].
8. Little RR, Goldstein DE. Endocrine (standardization of glycohemoglobin measurement). Anal Chem 1995;67:393R-7.
9. Sharon A, Ben-Aryeh H, Itzhak B, Yoram K, Szargel R, Gutman D, et al. Salivary composition in diabetic patients. J Oral Med 1985;40:23-6.
10. Thorstensson H, Falk H, Hugoson A, Olsson J. Some salivary factors in insulin-dependent diabetics. Acta Odontol Scand 1989;47:175-83.
11. Darwazeh AM, MacFarlane TW, McCuish A, Lamey PJ. Mixed salivary glucose levels and candidal carriage in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Oral Pathol Med 1991;20:280-3.
12. Chávez EM, Borrell LN, Taylor GW, Ship JA. A longitudinal analysis of salivary flow in control subjects and older adults with type 2 diabetes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;91:166-73.
13. Pal P, Desai NT, Kannan N, Masur VN, Daniel MJ, Bhatt N. Estimation of salivary amylase, salivary total protein and periodontal microflora in diabetes mellitus. J Indian Dent Assoc 2003;74:143-9.
14. Aydin S. A comparison of ghrelin, glucose, alpha-amylase and protein levels in saliva from diabetics. J Biochem Mol Biol 2007;40:29-35.
15. Kortuem GM. Saliva glucose and blood glucose. Am J Clin Pathol 1944;14:70.
16. Shannon IL, Prigmore JR, Brooks RA. Glucose concentrations in parotid fluid and blood serum following intravenous glucose loading. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1960;13:1010-2.
17. Englander HR, Jeffay AI, Fuller JB, Chauncey HH. Glucose concentrations in blood plasma and parotid saliva of individuals with and without diabetes mellitus. J Dent Res 1963;42:1246.
18. Campbell MJ. Glucose in the saliva of the non-diabetic and the diabetic patient. Arch Oral Biol 1965;10:197-205.
19. Carlson AJ, Ryan JG. Glucose in saliva. Am J Physiol 1908;21:301-9.
20. Reuterving CO, Reuterving G, Hägg E, Ericson T. Salivary flow rate and salivary glucose concentration in patients with diabetes mellitus influence of severity of diabetes. Diabete Metab 1987;13:457-62.
21. Ben-Aryeh H, Cohen M, Kanter Y, Szargel R, Laufer D. Salivary composition in diabetic patients. J Diabet Complications 1988;2:96-9.
22. Belazi MA, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Drakoulakos D, Fleva A, Papanayiotou PH. Salivary alterations in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Int J Paediatr Dent 1998;8:29-33.
23. Borg Andersson A, Birkhed D, Berntorp K, Lindgärde F, Matsson L. Glucose concentration in parotid saliva after glucose/food intake in individuals with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus. Eur J Oral Sci 1998;106:931-7.
24. Amer S, Yousuf M, Siddqiui PQ, Alam J. Salivary glucose concentrations in patients with diabetes mellitus--a minimally invasive technique for monitoring blood glucose levels. Pak J Pharm Sci 2001;14:33-7.
25. López ME, Colloca ME, Páez RG, Schallmach JN, Koss MA, Chervonagura A, et al. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children. Braz Dent J 2003;14:26-31.
26. Sreedevi, Shashikanth MC, Shambulingappa P. Comparison of serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetic patients. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2008;20:9-13.
27. Jurysta C, Bulur N, Oguzhan B, Satman I, Yilmaz TM, Malaisse WJ, et al. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects. J Biomed Biotechnol 2009;2009:430426.
28. Mahdavi SO, Hashemi S, Boostani NS, Zokaee H. A new method to evaluate fasting plasma glucose by salivary glucose measurement. Iran J Diabetes Obes 2012;4:127-32.
29. Panchbhai AS, Degwekar SS, Bhowte RR. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India. J Oral Sci 2010;52:359-68.
30. Priya SS, Bharani GO, Nagalingam M, Jayanthi M, Kanagavalli U. Potential of salivary protein as a biomarker in prognosis of diabetes mellitus. J Pharm Res 2011;4:2228-9.
31. Amer S, Yousuf M, Siddqiui PQ, Alam J. Salivary glucose concentrations in patients with diabetes mellitus--a minimally invasive technique for monitoring blood glucose levels. Pak J Pharm Sci 2001;14:33-7.
32. Agrawal RP, Sharma N, Rathore MS, Gupta VB, Jain S, Agarwal V. Non-invasive method for glucose level estimation by saliva. J Diabetes Metab 2013;4:266.
33. Abikshyeet P, Ramesh V, Oza N. Glucose estimation in the salivary secretion of diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2012; 5:149-54.
34. Ivanovski K, Naumovski V, Kostadinova M, Pesevska S, Drijanska K, Filipce V, et al. Xerostomia and salivary levels of glucose and urea in patients with diabetes. Prilozi 2012;33:219-29.
35. Bakianian Vaziri P, Vahedi M, Mortazavi H, Abdollahzadeh SH, Hajilooi M. Evaluation of salivary glucose, igA and flow rate in diabetic patients: A case-control study. J Dent (Tehran) 2010;7:13-8.
36. Vasconcelos AC, Soares MS, Almeida PC, Soares TC. Comparative study of the concentration of salivary and blood glucose in Type 2 diabetic patients. J Oral Sci 2010;52:293-8.
240 Views | 70 Downloads
How to Cite
NIRMALA A, MAZHER SULTANA, and SHARON NS. “SALIVARY GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION IN TYPE-II DIABETIC PEOPLE: A CASE–CONTROL STUDY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 11, Oct. 2019, pp. 192-4, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i11.34739.
Original Article(s)