CHARACTERIZATION, ANTIMICROBIAL, AND METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF GREEN AND CHEMICALLY SYNTHESIZED ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES
Objectives: The aim of the present study is a synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) by green and chemical method. The nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial, antibiofilm activity, biocompatibility, and hemolysis activity.
Methods: We have synthesized ZnONPs both by green and chemical synthesis using the coprecipitation method. To understand the functional group, absorbance, crystalline nature, size, and shape of the synthesized particles, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were done. Antibacterial activity was carried out using different bacterial strains. The cytotoxicity of synthesized nanoparticles was checked using MTT assay with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiofilm activities of both synthesized nanoparticles were done using Staphylococcus aureus and to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles at the cellular level, hemolysis assay was performed.
Results: The yield of nanoparticles in green synthesis was much higher when compared to chemical synthesis. Spectral results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles were ZnONPs. Antibacterial, antibiofilm, and hemolysis assay showed that green nanoparticles were more potent than chemical nanoparticles.
Conclusion: Hence, green synthesis provides an advantage over chemical synthesis as it is cost effective, environmentally friendly, and easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis.
2. Manokari M, Ravindran CP, Shekhawat MS. Production of zinc oxide nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of a medicinal plant Micrococca mercurialis L. Benth. World Sci News 2016;30:117-28.
3. Cremonez CM, Leite FP, Bordon Kde C, Cerni FA, Cardoso IA, Gregório ZM, et al. Experimental Lachesis muta rhombeata envenomation and effects of soursop (Annona muricata) as natural antivenom. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2016;22:12.
4. Namasivayam SK, Prasanna M, Subathra S. Synrergistic antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles with antibiotics against the human pathogenic bacteria. J Chem Pharm Res 2015;7:133-8.
5. Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. An antibiotic assay by Agar Well diffusion method. Acta Biolo Med Exp 1990;15;113-5.
6. Igarashi M, Miyazawa T. The growth inhibitory effect of conjugated linoleic acid on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, is induced by a change in fatty acid metabolism, but not the facilitation of lipid peroxidation in the cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1530:162-71.
7. Christensen GD, Simpson WA, Younger JJ, Baddour LM, Barrett FF, Melton DM, et al. Adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to plastic tissue culture plates: A quantitative model for the adherence of staphylococci to medical devices. J Clin Microbiol 1985;22:996-1006.
8. Gleibs S, Mebs D, Werding B. Studies on the origin and distribution of palytoxin in a Caribbean coral reef. Toxicon 1995;33:1531-7.
9. Parthiban C, Sundaramurthy N. Biosynthesis, characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles by using Pyrus pyrifolia leaf extract and their photocatalytic activity. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Tech 2015;4:9710-8.
10. Senthilkumar SR, Sivakumar T. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) mediated synthesis of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and studies on their antimicrobial activities. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:461-5.
11. Bagheri S, Chandrappa KG, Hamid SB. Facile synthesis of nano-sized ZnO by direct precipitation method. Pharm Chem 2014;5:265-70.
12. Hu D, Si W, Qin W, Jiao J, Li X, Gu X, et al. Cucurbita pepo leaf extract induced synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles, characterization for the treatment of femoral fracture. J Photochem Photobiol B 2019;195:12-6.
13. Raj LF, Jayalakshmy E. Biosynthesis and characterization of Zinc oxide nanoparticles using root extract of Zingiber officinale. Orient J Chem 2015;31:51-6.
14. Prakash MJ, Kalayanasundharam S. Biosynthesis, characterization, free radical scavenging activity and anti-bacterial effect of plant mediated Zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pithecellobium dulce and Lagenaria siceraria leaf extracts. Int J Nano Mater Sci 2015;4:55-69.
15. Kunasekaran V, Krishnamoorthy K. Compatible studies of rasagiline mesylate with selected excipients for an effective solid lipid nanoparticles formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:73-80.
16. Ramesh P, Rajendran A, Subramanian A. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from fruits of Citrus aurantifolia by chemical and green method. Asian J Phytomed Clin Res 2014;2:189-95.
17. Gnanasangeetha D, Thambavani SD. Facile and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles using Azadirachta and Emblica. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:2866-73.
18. Ibrahimel-Assal M, Menofy NG. Chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery system for cephalexin and its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019;7:14-27.
19. Yadav R, Bandopadhyay M, Saha A, Mandal AK. Synthesis, characterisation, antibacterial and cytotoxic assays of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. Br Biotechnol J 2014;9:1-10.
20. Bhumi G, Savithramma N Biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from Catharanthus roseus (I.) G. Don. leaf extract and validation for antibacterial activity. Int J Drug Dev Res 2014;6:208-14.
21. Ratney YJ, David SB. Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles by sonochemical method and green method using Zingiber officinale. Green Chem Tech Lett 2016;2:11-5.
22. Abdel-Aziem A. An efficient and simple synthesis 2, 3-Dihydro-1, 3, 4-Thiadiazoles, pyrazoles and coumarins containing benzofuran moiety using both conventional and grinding methods. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:61-8.
23. Shankar S, Rhim J. Effect of Zn salts and hydrolyzing agents on the morphology and antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Environ Chem Lett 2019;17:1105-9.
24. Barkhordari A, Hekmatimoghaddam S, Jebali A, Khalili MA, Talebi A, Noorani M, et al. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on viability of human spermatozoa. Iran J Reprod Med 2013;11:767-71.
25. Fakhroueian Z, Deshiri AM, Katouzian F, Esmaeilzadeh P. In vitro cytotoxic effects of modified zinc oxide quantum dots on breast cancer cell lines (MCF7), colon cancer cell lines (HT29) and various fungi. J Nanopart Res 2014;5:1-14.
26. Fazio E, Santoro M, Franco MS, Guglielmino PP, Neri F. Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation: Synthesis, structural properties and antimicrobial activity. Collids Surf A 2016;490:98-103.
27. Alijani HQ, Pourseyedi S, Torkzadeh-Mahani M, Khatami M. Green synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles using Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and evaluation of its cytotoxic properties. J Mol Struct 2018;1175:214-218.
28. Hussain A, Oves M, Alajmi MF, Hussain I, Amir S, Ahmed J, et al. Biogenesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Pandanus odorifer leaf extract: Anticancer and antimicrobial activities. RSC Adv 2019;9:15357-70.
29. Khan ST, Ahmad J, Ahamed M, Musarrat J, Al-Khedhairy AA. Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress, inhibit growth, and attenuate biofilm formation activity of Streptococcus mitis. J Biol Inorg Chem 2016;21:295-303.
30. Pati R, Mehta RK, Mohanty S, Padhi A, Sengupta M, Vaseeharan B, et al. Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages. Nanomedicine 2014;10:1195-208.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.