natural products preventing diabetes

  • SATYAPRAKASH BERAIYA Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences (Zoology), Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • PIR MOHAMMAD ISHFAQ Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences (Zoology), Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • ZAVED AHMAD Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences (Zoology), Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • SWATI TRIPATHI Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • SIDDHARTHA KUMAR MISHRA Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences (Zoology), Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India.


Oxidative stress has emerged as one of the targets in several medical conditions and in several types of clinical researches. Growing evidences from research on diverse diseases show that oxidative stress is conjoined with the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. This review has examined the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. A vast variety of medicinal plants and products have been utilized for the prevention of diabetes and its related complications. Natural products such as phenolic acids and flavonoids construct one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant phenolics. At present, the effect of dietary phenolics is of extreme concern due to their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and as quenchers of singlet oxygen formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as reactive nitrogen species play either harmful or beneficial roles in biological systems depending on pathophysiological conditions. This review extends on the fundamental aspect of ROS in biological processes and diseases and how natural bioactive compounds of fruits and vegetables regulate their health improving properties. Flavonoids and phenolics acids are the most important groups of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds in plants. Diverse phytochemical agents have become the backbone in pharmacotherapy of diabetes by virtue of their antioxidant properties along with their other pharmacological actions. Consequently, accession to obstruction the generation of reactive free radicals or abduct the reactive free radical may yield direct and casual approach for the medication of diabetes and its complications.

Keywords: Natural products, Diabetes mellitus, Free radicals, Oxidative stress, Prevention


1. Factor SM, Minase T, Sonnenblick EH. Clinical and morphological features of human hypertensive-diabetic cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J 1980;99:446-58.
2. Pickup JC. Inflammation and activated innate immunity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:813-23.
3. Jakus V. The role of free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in diabetic vascular disease. Bratisl Lek Listy 2000;101:541- 51.
4. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, Nathan DM, Genuth S, Lachin J, Cleary P, Crofford O, et al. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:977-86.
5. Johansen JS, Harris AK, Rychly DJ, Ergul A. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2005;4:5.
6. Zeenat A, Archana M, Siddhartha Kumar M. Ethnopharmacological review of natural products in cancer prevention and therapy. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:32-44.
7. Muhammad A, Mahadeva US, Ahmad Bashir A, Khamsah Suryati M, Thant Z. Some natural products and their secondary metabolites attributed towards diabetic cure: A review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:22-8.
8. Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:81-100.
9. Erukainure OL, Hafizur RM, Kabir N, Choudhary MI, Atolani O, Banerjee P, et al. Suppressive effects of Clerodendrum volubile P beauv. [Labiatae] methanolic extract and its fractions on type 2 diabetes and its complications. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:8.
10. Saxena A, Vikram NK. Role of selected Indian plants in management of type 2 diabetes: A review. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:369- 78.
11. Afanas’ev I. Signaling of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in diabetes mellitus. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2010;3:361-73.
12. Koya D, Hayashi K, Kitada M, Kashiwagi A, Kikkawa R, Haneda M. Effects of antioxidants in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:S250-3.
13. Karunakaran U, Park KG. A systematic review of oxidative stress and safety of antioxidants in diabetes: Focus on islets and their defense. Diabetes Metab J 2013;37:106-12.
14. Siddhuraju P. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic compounds extracted from defatted raw and dry heated Tamarindus indica seed coat. LWT Food Sci Tech 2007;40:982-90.
15. Baynes JW. Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes. Diabetes 1991;40:405-12.
16. Vincent AM, Brownlee M, Russell JW. Oxidative stress and programmed cell death in diabetic neuropathy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;959:368-83.
17. Desco MC, Asensi M, Márquez R, Martínez-Valls J, Vento M, Pallardó FV, et al. Xanthine oxidase is involved in free radical production in type 1 diabetes: Protection by allopurinol. Diabetes 2002;51:1118-24.
18. Hunt JV, Dean RT, Wolff SP. Hydroxyl radical production and autoxidative glycosylation. Glucose autoxidation as the cause of protein damage in the experimental glycation model of diabetes mellitus and ageing. Biochem J 1988;256:205-12.
19. Afkhami-Ardekani M, Shojaoddiny-Ardekani A. Effect of Vitamin C on blood glucose, serum lipids & serum insulin in type 2 diabetes patients. Indian J Med Res 2007;126:471-4.
20. Brownlee M. Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature 2001;414:813-20.
21. Ha H, Kim KH. Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy: The role of oxidative stress and protein kinase C. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;45:147-51.
22. Ha H, Kim C, Son Y, Chung MH, Kim KH. DNA damage in the kidneys of diabetic rats exhibiting microalbuminuria. Free Radic Biol Med 1994;16:271-4.
23. Horie K, Miyata T, Maeda K, Miyata S, Sugiyama S, Sakai H, et al. Immunohistochemical colocalization of glycoxidation products and lipid peroxidation products in diabetic renal glomerular lesions. Implication for glycoxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. J Clin Invest 1997;100:2995-3004.
24. Sechi LA, Ceriello A, Griffin CA, Catena C, Amstad P, Schambelan M, et al. Renal antioxidant enzyme mRNA levels are increased in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1997;40:23-9.
25. Yildirim O, Büyükbingöl Z. Effect of cobalt on the oxidative status in heart and aorta of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cell Biochem Funct 2003;21:27-33.
26. Yildirim Ö. The effect of Vitamin C and cobalt supplementation on antioxidant status in healthy and diabetic rats. Afr J Biotech 2009;8:5053-8.
27. Peuchant E, Delmas-Beauvieux MC, Couchouron A, Dubourg L, Thomas MJ, Perromat A, et al. Short-term insulin therapy and normoglycemia. Effects on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1997;20:202-7.
28. Yu BP. Cellular defenses against damage from reactive oxygen species. Physiol Rev 1994;74:139-62.
29. Samuel TV, Murthy JD, Dattatreya, Babu PS, Johncy SS. Impaired antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetic retinopathy. J Clin Diagnos Res 2010;4:3430-6.
30. Rahman K. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clin Interv Aging 2007;2:219-36.
31. Chandran R, George BP, Abrahamse H, Parimelazhagan T. Therapeutic effects of Syzygium mundagam bark methanol extract on type-2 diabetic complications in rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2017;95:167-74.
32. Oberg BP, McMenamin E, Lucas FL, McMonagle E, Morrow J, Ikizler TA, et al. Increased prevalence of oxidant stress and inflammation in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2004;65:1009-16.
33. Guzik TJ, Mussa S, Gastaldi D, Sadowski J, Ratnatunga C, Pillai R, et al. Mechanisms of increased vascular superoxide production in human diabetes mellitus: Role of NAD(P)H oxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 2002;105:1656-62.
34. Turko IV, Marcondes S, Murad F. Diabetes-associated nitration of tyrosine and inactivation of succinyl-coA:3-oxoacid coA-transferase. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001;281:H2289-94.
35. Green K, Brand MD, Murphy MP. Prevention of mitochondrial oxidative damage as a therapeutic strategy in diabetes. Diabetes 2004;53 Suppl 1:S110-8.
36. Vega-López S, Devaraj S, Jialal I. Oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation in the management of diabetic cardiovascular disease. J Investig Med 2004;52:24-32.
37. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:461-70.
38. Alarcon-Aguilara FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Perez-Gutierrez S, Aguilar- Contreras A, Contreras-Weber CC, Flores-Saenz JL. Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61:101-10.
39. Bnouham M, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Tahri A, Legssyer A. Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity – A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000). Int J Diab Metabol 2006;14:1.
40. Marles R. Plants as sources of antidiabetic agents. Econ Med Plant Res 1994;6:149-87.
41. Bailey CJ, Day C. Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care 1989;12:553-64.
42. Nalamolu KR, Nammi S. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:17.
43. Martinello F, Soares SM, Franco JJ, Santos AC, Sugohara A, Garcia SB, et al. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:810-8.
44. Sudhakara G, Ramesh B, Mallaiah P, Manjunatha B, Desireddy S. Protective effect of commiphora mukul gum resin on brain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:406- 11.
45. Patel DK, Prasad SK, Kumar R, Hemalatha S. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:320-30.
46. Badescu M, Badulescu O, Badescu L, Ciocoiu M. Effects of Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa extracts on immune system disorders within diabetes mellitus. Pharm Biol 2015;53:533-9.
47. Xu X, Shan B, Liao CH, Xie JH, Wen PW, Shi JY. Anti-diabetic properties of Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Int J Biol Macromol 2015;81:538-43.
48. Li JM, Che CT, Lau CB, Leung PS, Cheng CH. Inhibition of intestinal and renal Na+-glucose cotransporter by naringenin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006;38:985-95.
49. Gayathri M, Kannabiran K. 2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from roots of Hemidesmus indicus ameliorates liver, kidney and pancreas injury due to streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2010;48:159-64.
50. Ota A, Ulrih NP. An overview of herbal products and secondary metabolites used for management of type two diabetes. Front Pharmacol 2017;8:436.
51. Ghorbani A. Mechanisms of antidiabetic effects of flavonoid rutin. Biomed Pharmacother 2017;96:305-12.
52. George C, Lochner A, Huisamen B. The efficacy of Prosopis glandulosa as antidiabetic treatment in rat models of diabetes and insulin resistance. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;137:298-304.
53. Mishra SK, Sangwan NS, Sangwan RS. Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh): A review. Pharmacog Rev 2007;1:283-98.
54. Yu BC, Hung CR, Chen WC, Cheng JT. Antihyperglycemic effect of andrographolide in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med 2003;69:1075-9.
55. Mishra SK, Tripathi S, Shukla A, Oh SH, Kim HM. Andrographolide and analogues in cancer prevention. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2015;7:255- 66.
56. Gray AM, Flatt PR. Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of Agaricus campestris (mushroom). J Endocrinol 1998;157:259-66.
57. Pinent M, Blay M, Bladé MC, Salvadó MJ, Arola L, Ardévol A. Grape seed-derived procyanidins have an antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulinomimetic activity in insulin-sensitive cell lines. Endocrinology 2004;145:4985-90.
58. Rankin JW, Andreae MC, Oliver Chen CY, O’Keefe SF. Effect of raisin consumption on oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008;10:1086-96.
59. Mirghazanfari SM, Keshavarz M, Nabavizadeh F, Soltani N, Kamalinejad M. The effect of “Teucrium polium L.” extracts on insulin release from in situ isolated perfused rat pancreas in a newly modified isolation method: The role of Ca2+ and K+ channels. Iran Biomed J 2010;14:178-85.
60. Pari L, Srinivasan S. Antihyperglycemic effect of diosmin on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2010;64:477-81.
61. Silambarasan T, Raja B. Diosmin, a bioflavonoid reverses alterations in blood pressure, nitric oxide, lipid peroxides and antioxidant status in DOCA-salt induced hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;679:81- 9.
62. Hou CC, Lin SJ, Cheng JT, Hsu FL. Antidiabetic dimeric guianolides and a lignan glycoside from Lactuca indica. J Nat Prod 2003;66:625-9.
63. Frankish N, de Sousa Menezes F, Mills C, Sheridan H. Enhancement of insulin release from the beta-cell line INS-1 by an ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata and its major constituent roseoside. Planta Med 2010;76:995-7.
64. Kalailingam P, Kannaian B, Tamilmani E, Kaliaperumal R. Efficacy of natural diosgenin on cardiovascular risk, insulin secretion, and beta cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 2014;21:1154-61.
65. Uemura T, Hirai S, Mizoguchi N, Goto T, Lee JY, Taketani K, et al. Diosgenin present in fenugreek improves glucose metabolism by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues. Mol Nutr Food Res 2010;54:1596-608.
66. Son IS, Kim JH, Sohn HY, Son KH, Kim JS, Kwon CS. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic effects of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin of yam (Dioscorea spp.), on high-cholesterol fed rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007;71:3063-71.
67. Tiwari P, Mishra BN, Sangwan NS. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An important medicinal plant. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:830285.
68. Kumar V, Bhandari U, Tripathi CD, Khanna G. Protective effect of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on high fat diet-induced obese diabetic wistar rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2014;76:315-22.
69. Horváthová K, Chalupa I, Sebová L, Tóthová D, Vachálková A. Protective effect of quercetin and luteolin in human melanoma HMB- 2 cells. Mutat Res 2005;565:105-12.
70. Ding L, Jin D, Chen X. Luteolin enhances insulin sensitivity via activation of PPAR? transcriptional activity in adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 2010;21:941-7.
71. Kwon O, Eck P, Chen S, Corpe CP, Lee JH, Kruhlak M, et al. Inhibition of the intestinal glucose transporter GLUT2 by flavonoids. FASEB J 2007;21:366-77.
72. Stewart LK, Wang Z, Ribnicky D, Soileau JL, Cefalu WT, Gettys TW. Failure of dietary quercetin to alter the temporal progression of insulin resistance among tissues of C57BL/6J mice during the development of diet-induced obesity. Diabetologia 2009;52:514-23.
73. Longuet C, Broca C, Costes S, Hani EH, Bataille D, Dalle S. Extracellularly regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases) phosphorylate synapsin I and regulate insulin secretion in the MIN6 beta-cell line and islets of langerhans. Endocrinology 2005;146:643-54.
74. Jolad SD, Lantz RC, Solyom AM, Chen GJ, Bates RB, Timmermann BN. Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): Composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry 2004;65:1937-54.
75. Arablou T, Aryaeian N, Valizadeh M, Sharifi F, Hosseini A, Djalali M. The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2014;65:515-20.
76. de Lima RM, Dos Reis AC, de Menezes AP, Santos JV, Filho JW, Ferreira JR, et al. Protective and therapeutic potential of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and [6]-gingerol in cancer: A comprehensive review. Phytother Res 2018;32:1885-907.
77. Wang J, Zhang X, Lan H, Wang W. Effect of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food Nutr Res 2017;61:1377571.
78. Liu CT, Wong PL, Lii CK, Hse H, Sheen LY. Antidiabetic effect of garlic oil but not diallyl disulfide in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1377-84.
79. Pinto Mda S, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K. Potential of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves in the management of hyperglycemia and hypertension using in vitro models. Bioresour Technol 2009;100:6599-609.
80. Dimo T, Rakotonirina SV, Tan PV, Azay J, Dongo E, Kamtchouing P, et al. Effect of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) stem bark methylene chloride/methanol extract on streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:434-8.
81. Dièye AM, Sarr A, Diop SN, Ndiaye M, Sy GY, Diarra M, et al. Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Senegal: Survey with patients. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2008;22:211-6.
82. Yoshikawa M, Nishida N, Shimoda H, Takada M, Kawahara Y, Matsuda H. Polyphenol constituents from Salacia species: Quantitative analysis of mangiferin with alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Yakugaku Zasshi 2001;121:371-8.
83. Bai L, Li X, He L, Zheng Y, Lu H, Li J, et al. Antidiabetic potential of flavonoids from traditional Chinese medicine: A review. Am J Chin Med 2019;47:933-57.
84. Auwerx J, Schoonjans K, Fruchart JC, Staels B. Transcriptional control of triglyceride metabolism: Fibrates and fatty acids change the expression of the LPL and apo C-III genes by activating the nuclear receptor PPAR. Atherosclerosis 1996;124 Suppl: S29-37.
85. Gui QF, Xu ZR, Xu KY, Yang YM. The efficacy of ginseng-related therapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95:e2584.
86. Zhang Q, ElSohly HN, Li XC, Walker LA. A new triterpene from Leandra chaetodon. Planta Med 2003;69:582-4.
87. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC. Protective role of arjunolic acid in response to streptozotocin-induced type-I diabetes via the mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways. Toxicology 2009;257:53-63.
88. Raghavan B, Kumari SK. Effect of terminalia arjuna stem bark on antioxidant status in liver and kidney of alloxan diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2006;50:133-42.
89. Girón MD, Sevillano N, Salto R, Haidour A, Manzano M, Jiménez ML, et al. Salacia oblonga extract increases glucose transporter 4-mediated glucose uptake in L6 rat myotubes: Role of mangiferin. Clin Nutr 2009;28:565-74.
90. Hou J, Zheng D, Fung G, Deng H, Chen L, Liang J, et al. Mangiferin suppressed advanced glycation end products (AGEs) through NF-?B deactivation and displayed anti-inflammatory effects in streptozotocin and high fat diet-diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2016;94:332-40.
91. Ku CR, Lee HJ, Kim SK, Lee EY, Lee MK, Lee EJ. Resveratrol prevents streptozotocin-induced diabetes by inhibiting the apoptosis of pancreatic ?-cell and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Endocr J 2012;59:103-9.
92. Deng JY, Hsieh PS, Huang JP, Lu LS, Hung LM. Activation of estrogen receptor is crucial for resveratrol-stimulating muscular glucose uptake via both insulin-dependent and -independent pathways. Diabetes 2008;57:1814-23.
93. Meghana K, Sanjeev G, Ramesh B. Curcumin prevents streptozotocin-induced islet damage by scavenging free radicals: A prophylactic and protective role. Eur J Pharmacol 2007;577:183-91.
94. Kanitkar M, Gokhale K, Galande S, Bhonde RR. Novel role of curcumin in the prevention of cytokine-induced islet death in vitro and diabetogenesis in vivo. Br J Pharmacol 2008;155:702-13.
95. Hong JH, Lee IS. Effects of Artemisia capillaris ethyl acetate fraction on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Chem Biol Interact 2009;179:88-93.
96. Jiang B, Liu JH, Bao YM, An LJ. Catalpol inhibits apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide-induced PC12 cells by preventing cytochrome c release and inactivating of caspase cascade. Toxicon 2004;43:53-9.
97. Hu L, Sun Y, Hu J. Catalpol inhibits apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelium by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and modulating expression of bcl-2 and bax. Eur J Pharmacol 2010;628:155- 63.
98. Saha S, Verma RJ. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extract of Terminalia chebula retzius fruits. J Univ Sci 2016;10:805-12.
99. Achrekar S, Kaklij GS, Pote MS, Kelkar SM. Hypoglycemic activity of Eugenia jambolana and Ficus bengalensis: Mechanism of action. In Vivo 1991;5:143-7.
100. Adefegha SA, Oboh G. Antioxidant and inhibitory properties of Clerodendrum volubile leaf extracts on key enzymes relevant to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension. J Taibah Univ Sci 2016;10:521-33.
101. Leung L, Birtwhistle R, Kotecha J, Hannah S, Cuthbertson S. Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A mini review. Br J Nutr 2009;102:1703-8.
102. Hanhineva K, Törrönen R, Bondia-Pons I, Pekkinen J, Kolehmainen M, Mykkänen H, et al. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism. Int J Mol Sci 2010;11:1365-402.
103. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:727-47.
104. Kawser Hossain M, Abdal Dayem A, Han J, Yin Y, Kim K, Kumar Saha S, et al. Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties of flavonoids. Int J Mol Sci 2016;17:569.
105. Manach C, Donovan JL. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of dietary flavonoids in humans. Free Radic Res 2004;38:771-85.
106. Calderón-Montaño JM, Burgos-Morón E, Pérez-Guerrero C, López-Lázaro M. A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol. Mini Rev Med Chem 2011;11:298-344.
107. Zhang Y, Liu D. Flavonol kaempferol improves chronic hyperglycemia-impaired pancreatic beta-cell viability and insulin secretory function. Eur J Pharmacol 2011;670:325-32.
108. Vinayagam R, Xu B. Antidiabetic properties of dietary flavonoids: A cellular mechanism review. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2015;12:60.
109. Guo H, Ling W. The update of anthocyanins on obesity and type 2 diabetes: Experimental evidence and clinical perspectives. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2015;16:1-13.
172 Views | 31 Downloads
How to Cite
Review Article(s)