ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF CRATEVA MAGNA IN TRANSPLANTABLE TUMOR MODELS IN MICE
ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF CRATEAVA MAGNA
Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of both the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Crateva magna (ALCM and AQCM) in solid tumor model and ascites tumor model in mice.
Methods: The study was divided into in vitro and in vivo sections. In vitro, antioxidant activity of both the extracts was evaluated by well-established antioxidant assays such as α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging. Both the extracts were subjected for in vitro preliminary cytotoxicity screening by brine shrimp lethality assay and Trypan blue exclusion assay. In vivo antitumor activity of ALCM and AQCM was assessed at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg bodyweight, respectively, by Dalton’s Lymphoma ascites induced robust tumor model and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma induced ascites tumor model in mice. Substantial tumor volume, tumor weight, and % inhibition of the tumor weight in treated and untreated groups were evaluated. In addition to the investigation of antitumor activity, the possible immunomodulatory activity was also assessed.
Results: The studies showed that the ALCM demonstrated more significant antioxidant activity. The results also showed more immunomodulatory activity when compared to AQCM.
Conclusion: The study proves that the plant extract is of higher therapeutic efficacy in cancer. However, the extracts require more exploration toward its usefulness in drug discovery.
2. Mayakrishnan V, Kannappan P, Shanmugasundaram K, Abdullah N. Anticancer activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) blume against dalton’s lymphomae in mice model. Pak J Pharm Sci 2014;27:1911-7.
3. Dahiru D, Obidoa O. Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Leaf extracts against chronic ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2007;5:39-45.
4. Meera R, Chidambaranathan N. Anti cancer activity of ethanolic extract of crataeva magna lour (DC) against ehrlich ascitic carcinoma cell lines in mice. J Pharm Sci 2017;9:5.
5. Nasrin M, Dash PR, Ali MS. In vitro antibacterial and in vivo cytotoxic activities of Grewia paniculata. Avicenna J Phytomed 2015;5:98-104.
6. Kumari TD, Madhuri T, Charya MA, Rao KS. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of nyctanthes arbor-tristis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:452-4.
7. Sreejayan N, Rao MN. Free radical scavenging activity of curcuminoids. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:169-71.
8. Oszmia?ski J, Wojdy?o A. Comparative study of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strawberry puree, clear, and cloudy juices. Eur Food Res Technol 2009;228:623-31.
9. Ghosal M, Mandal PK. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of two selected “bihi” fruits used as vegetables in Darjeeling Himalaya. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:567-74.
10. Ghosh S, Derle A, Ahire M, More P, Jagtap S, Phadatare SD, et al. Phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of medicinal plants gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera. PLoS One 2013;8:e82529.
11. Weisenthal LM, Marsden JA, Dill PL, Macaluso CK. A novel dye exclusion method for testing in vitro chemosensitivity of human tumors. Cancer Res 1983;43:749-57.
12. Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL, et al. Brine shrimp: A convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Med 1982;45:31-4.
13. Manjula SN, Kenganora M, Parihar VK, Kumar S, Nayak PG, Kumar N, et al. Antitumor and antioxidant activity of polyalthia longifolia stem bark ethanol extract. Pharm Biol 2010;48:690-6.
14. Kumar N, Dhamija I, Raj PV, Jayashree BS, Parihar V, Manjula SN, et al. Preliminary investigation of cytotoxic potential of 2-quinolone derivatives using in vitro and in vivo (solid tumor and liquid tumor) models of cancer. Arab J Chem 2014;7:409-17.
15. Eckhardt AE, Malone BN, Goldstein IJ. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites tumor cell growth by Griffonia simplicifolia I lectin in vivo. Cancer Res 1982;42:2977-9.
16. Mukherjee A, Hazra S, Dutta S, Muthiah S, Mondhe DM, Sharma PR, et al. Antitumor efficacy and apoptotic activity of substituted chloroalkyl 1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones: A new class of potential antineoplastic agents. Invest New Drugs 2011;29:434-42.
17. Kumar RS, Rajkapoor B, Perumal P. Antitumor and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract of Indigofera linnaei Ali. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:613-8.
18. Thefeld W, Hoffmeister H, Busch EW, Koller PU, Vollmar J. Reference values for the determination of GOT, GPT, and alkaline phosphatase in serum with optimal standard methods (author’s transl). Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1974;99:343-4 passim.
19. Kori ML, Gaur K, Dixit VK. Investigation of immunomodulatory potential of Cleome gynandra Linn. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2009;2:5.
20. A NE, Mathew L. In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficacy of Thevetia peruviana seed kernel extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:47-50.
21. Tripathi S, Maurya A, Kahrana M, Kaul A, Sahu R. Immunomodulatory property of ethanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graeceum leaves on mice. Pharm Lett 2012;4:2708-13.
22. Lamont AG, Bruce MG, Watret KC, Ferguson A. Suppression of an established DTH response to ovalbumin in mice by feeding antigen after immunization. Immunol 1988;64:135-9.
23. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction. Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr Diet 1986;44:307-15.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.