IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF WATER EXTRACTS OF BETEL (PIPER BETLE L.) LEAF AND (UNCARIA GAMBIR ROXB.) GAMBIER ON PHAGOCYTIC CELLS AND MODULATION ON PHOSPHATASE ENZYME OF MICE

None

  • MUHAMMAD YANIS MUSDJA Department of Pharmacy, State Islamic University, Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • AMINAH NURHADIYAH Department of Pharmacy, State Islamic University, Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ZILHALDIA Department of Pharmacy, State Islamic University, Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ANDRIA AGUSTA Department of Microbiology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: This study was to determine the immunomodulatory effect of a mixture of water extracts of betel (Piper betle L.) leaf and (Uncaria gambir Roxb.) gambier on phagocytic cells and modulation on phosphatase enzyme of mice.


Methods: Mixture of extracts of betel leaf and gambier (ratio, 429:71) was given to seven groups of mice for 14 days with doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two kinds of immunomodulatory drug in syrup form commonly used in the treatment of infectious were used as positive controls. The peritoneal fluid of mice containing macrophage cells was isolated by performing surgery. Immunomodulatory effect was done by calculating the number of phagocytosis activity and capacity of macrophage cells of mice, and measurement of phosphatase enzyme was done using a spectrophotometer ultraviolet visible on λ=405 nm, after 1 h intraperitoneal injection Staphylococcus epidermidis on each group of mice. Immunomodulatory effects of each group of a mixture of extract were compared with negative control, normal control, and positive controls.


Results: The result showed that doses administered 200 mg/kg BW of mixture extract most efficacy for both phagocytosis activity and phagocytosis capacity as well as for the results of testing for phosphatase enzyme. Based on statistical tests, it was significantly different (p≤0.05), if compared with negative controls and normal controls but not significantly different, if compared to positive controls (p≥0.05).


Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it has been obtained that a mixture of water extracts of betel (P. betle L.) leaf and (U. gambir Roxb.) gambier with a dose of 200 mg/kg BW is very potential to be used as an immunomodulatory.

Keywords: Betel leaf, Immunomodulatory, Phagocytic macrophage, Gambier, Phosphatase enzyme

References

1. Hossain MF, Anwar M, Akhtar S, Numan SM. Uses impact of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on public health. Sci J Public Health 2017;5:408-10.
2. Atwal GS, Warnakulasuriya KA, Gelbier S. Betel-quid chewing habits among a sample of South. Asians J Dent Res 1996;75:115-7.
3. Rooban T, Mishra G, Elizabeth J, Ranganathan K, Saraswathi TR. Effect of habitual arecanut chewing on resting whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH. Indian J Med Sci 2006;60:95-105.
4. Ataguba GA, Dong HT, Rattanarojpong T, Senapin S, Salin KR. Piper betle leaf extract inhibits multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens and in vivo Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Nile Tilapia. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 2018;18:671-80.
5. Budiman A, Khoerunnisa R, Qoriah T. Wound-healing test of piper betle leaf extract and Aloe vera in gel preparation. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:86-91.
6. Bascones-Martinez A, Mattila R, Gomez-Font R, Meurman JH. Immunomodulatory drugs: Oral and systemic adverse effects. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2014;19:e24-31.
7. Nair U, Bartsch H, Nair J. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: A review of agents and causative mechanisms. Mutagenesis 2004;19:251-62.
8. Ramya M, Anuradha R. Biochemical changes in betel quid chewers and non-chewers of kakkarai. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:122-4.
9. Mohanto S, Datta S and Mandal S, Piper Betel Linn: A brief studyInternational Journal of Current Medical And Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 3, Issue, 02, 1290-1296, February, 2017
10. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics. Monitoring Health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
11. Kumar N, Misra P, Dube A, Bhattacharya S, Dikshit M, Ranade S. Piper betle Linn. A maligned pan-asiatic plant with an array of pharmacological activities and prospects for drug discovery. Curr Sci 2010;99:922-31.
12. Labro MT. Interference of antibacterial agents with phagocyte functions. Clin Micr Rev 2000;3:619-28.
13. Venkatalakshmi P, Vadivel V, Brindha P. Role of phytochemicals as immunomodulatory agents: A review. Int J Green Pharm 2016;10:2.
14. Kayser O, Masihi KN, Kiderlen AF. Natural products and synthetic compounds as immunomodulators. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2003;1:319-35.
15. Barford D, Das AK, Egloff MP. The structure and mechanism of protein phosphatases: Insights into catalysis and regulation. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 1998;27:133-64.
16. Bull H, Murray PG, Thomas D, Fraser AM, Nelson PN. Acid phosphatases. Mol Pathol 2002;55:65-72.
17. Snipes RG, Lam KW, Dodd RC, Gray TK, Cohen MS. Acid Phosphatase Activity in Mononuclear Phagocytes and the U937 Cell Line: Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Express Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase. Available from: http://www.bloodjournal.org by guest on. [Last accessed on 2017 Apr 11].
18. Musdja MY, Syarif A, Poerwaningsih EH, Agusta A. Modulation of Macrophage Immune Responses of Extract Mixture of Betel Leaf (Piper Betle, L), Gambier (Uncaria Gambier, Roxb) and Calcium Hydroxide on Phagocytic Cells of Mice, 1st ed. Proceeding of The 2nd International Conference on Pharmacy and Advanced Pharmaceutical Sciences, Book I: Pharmaceutical Science; 2011. p. 76-81.
19. Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). CPCSEA guidelines for laboratory animal facility. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:257-74.
20. Kusmardi, Shirly K, Enif ET. Immunomodulatory effects of Cassia alata Linn leaf extract on the activity and capacity of phagocytosis of macrophages. Facu Med Univ Indonesia Jakarta J Makara 2007;2:50-5.
21. Dey PM. Method in Plant Biochemistry Assay for Bioactivity. Vol. 6. K. Harbone Boston, Sydney, Toronto: Hostechman, Academic Press; 1991. p. 196-8.
22. Kiefer HC. Measurement of phosphatases in biological fluids. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1977;7:500-5.
23. Sridhar K, Narayanan M, Goswami K. Measurement of total alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum using charcoal activated para-nitro phenyl phosphate. Int J Sci Res 2016;5:1315-7.
24. Domingues A, Sartori A, Valente LM, Golim MA, Siani AC, Viero RM, et al. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a th2 cytokine profile. Phytother Res 2011;25:1229-35.
25. Musdja MY, Hapsaria MA, Agusta A. Comparison of activity and inhibitory mechanism between (+)-catechin and water extract of gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb.) against some bacteria. Sci J PPI-UKM, 2017;4:55-60.
26. Musdja MY, Syarif A, Poerwaningsih EH, Agusta A. Comparison Between Activity and Mechanism of Inhibition of Essential Oil Betel Leaf (Piper Betle, Linn) With Eugenol Against Some of Bacterial Pathogens, The 4il International Seminar of lndonesia Society for Microbiologt and IUMS-ISM Outreach Program on Food Safely ‘Indonesian Microbial Resources: Diversity and Global Impact’ Bali- Indonesia I 22-24,h; 2011. p. 90-9.
27. Shitut S, Pandit V, Mehta BK. The antimicrobial efficiency of Piper betle Linn leaf (stalk) against human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. Cent Eur J Public Health 1999;7:137-9.
Statistics
48 Views | 3 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
MUHAMMAD YANIS MUSDJA, AMINAH NURHADIYAH, ZILHALDIA, and ANDRIA AGUSTA. “IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF WATER EXTRACTS OF BETEL (PIPER BETLE L.) LEAF AND (UNCARIA GAMBIR ROXB.) GAMBIER ON PHAGOCYTIC CELLS AND MODULATION ON PHOSPHATASE ENZYME OF MICE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 11, Oct. 2019, pp. 203-7, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i11.35496.
Section
Original Article(s)