ANTIDEPRESSANT- LIKE ACTIVITY OF TRANS-ANETHOLE IN UNSTRESSED MICE AND STRESSED MICE

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar -125 001 (Haryana)

  • Dinesh Dhingra Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, HISAR-125001 (Haryana)
  • Sudha Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar -125 001 (Haryana)

Abstract

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidepressant potential of trans-anethole in unstressed and stressed male mice.


Methods: Swiss albino male mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 21 successive days. Simultaneously, trans-anethole (12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) per se were administered for 21 successive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice.  Effect of drugs on depressive-like behavior of mice was tested by tail suspension test and sucrose preference test. 


Results: Trans-anethole (25 mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed and stressed mice in TST as compared to their respective control. These drugs significantly restored the reduced sucrose preference (%) in stressed mice. Trans-anethole did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Antidepressant-like activity of trans-anethole (25 mg/kg) was found to be comparable to fluoxetine. Trans-anethole and fluoxetine significantly inhibited brain MAO-A activity, decreased plasma nitrite, brain malondialdehyde; and increased brain reduced glutathione levels and catalase activity in unstressed and stressed mice. The drugs significantly reversed stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels.


Conclusion: Trans-anethole produced significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice possibly through inhibition of brain MAO-A activity and alleviation of oxidative stress. Reversal of stress- induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels might also be responsible for antidepressant-like activity of trans-anethole in stressed mice.

Keywords: Antidepressant, Chronic unpredictable mild stress, Depression, Trans-anethole, Tail suspension test.

References

1) Fekadu N, Shibeshi W, Engidawork E. Major depressive disorder: pathophysiology and clinical management. J Depress Anxiety 2017;6:255.
2) World Health Organization. Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. p. 1-24.
3) WHO 2018. “Depression.” Fact sheet March 2018. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression .
4) Gold PW, Goodwin FK, Chrousus G. Clinical and biochemical manifestations of depression in relation to the neurobiology of stress: Part 1. N Engl J Med 1988;319:348– 53.
5) Herraiz T and Guillén H. Monoamine oxidase-A inhibition and associated antioxidant activity in plant extracts with potential antidepressant actions. BioMed Res Int 2018; 2018:1-10.
6) Youdim MBH, Edmondson D, Tipton KF. The therapeutic potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nature Rev Neurosci 2006;7:295–309.
7) Maes M, Galecki P, Chang YS, Berk M. A review on the oxidative and nitrosative stress (O & NS) pathways in major depression and their possible contribution to the (neuro) degenerative process in that illness. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011; 35:676–92.
8) Dhir A, Kulkarni SK. Nitric oxide and major depression. Nitric Oxide 2011;24:125–31.
9) Kumar B, Kuhad A, Chopra K. Neuropsychopharmacological effect of sesamol in unpredictable chronic mild stress model of depression: behavioral and biochemical evidences. Psychopharmacol 2011;214:819–28.
10) Pariante CM, Lightman SL. The HPA axis in major depression: classical theories and new developments. Trends Neurosci 2008;31:464–68.
11) Cowen PJ. Not fade away: the HPA axis and depression. Psychol Med 2010;40:1–4.
12) Oldehinkel AJ, Bouma EM. Sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of stress and HPA-axis reactivity in adolescence: a review of gender differences. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2011;35:1757–70.
13) Nemeroff CB. The burden of severe depression: a review of diagnostic challenges and treatment alternatives. J Psychiatr Res 2007;41:189–206.
14) Penn E, Tracy DK. The drugs don’t work? Antidepressants and the current and future pharmacological management of depression. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2012;2:179–88.
15) Bschor T, Ising M, Erbe S, Winkelmann P,Ritter D, Uhr M. Impact of citalopram on the HPA system. A study of the combined DEX/CRH test in 30 unipolar depressed patients. J Psychiatr Res 2012;46:111–17.
16) Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Stewart JW, Warden D. Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a STAR_D report. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:1905–17.
17) Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Efficacy and tolerability of Hypericum perforatum in major depressive disorder in comparison with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: A meta-analysis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009;33:118-21.
18) Marinov V, Valcheva-Kuzmanova S. Review on the pharmacological activities of anethole. Scripta Scientifica Pharmaceutica 2015;2:14-19.
19) Freire RS, Morasis SM, Catunda-Junior FEA, Pinheiro DC. Synthesis and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotector activities of anethole and related compounds. Bioorg Med Chem 2005;13:4353-8.
20) Miyagawa M, Satou T, Yukimune C, Ishibashi A, Seimiya H, Yamada H, Hasegawa T, Koike K. Anxiolytic?Like effect of illicium verum fruit oil, trans?anethole and related compounds in mice. Phytother Res 2014;28:1710-12.
21) Ritter AMV, Amesa FQ, Otani F, Oliveira RMW, Cuman RKN, Bersani-Amado CA. Effects of anethole in nociception experimental models. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:1-7.
22) Kang P, Kim KY, Lee HS, Min SS, Seol GH. Anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Life Sci 2013;93:955-61.
23) Sheikh BA, Pari A, Rathinam A, Chandramohan R. Trans-anethole, a terpenoid ameliorates hyperglycemia by regulating key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Biochimie 2015;112:57-65.
24) Coelho?de?Souza AN, Lahlou S, Barreto JE, Yum ME, Oliveira HD, Celedonio NR, et al. Essential oil of croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2013;27:288-98.
25) Abraham S. Anti-genotoxicity of trans-anethole and eugenol in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2001; 39:493-98.
26) Dhar S. Anti-fertility activity and hormonal profile of trans-anethole in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995; 39:63-67.
27) Soares PM, Lima RF, Freitas Pires A, Souza EP, Assreuy AM, Criddle DN. Effects of anethole and structural analogues on the contractility of rat isolated aorta: Involvement of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. Life Sci 2007;81:1085-93.
28) Huang Y, Zhao J, Zhou L, Wang J, Gong Y, Chen X, Guo Z, et al. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Illicium verum fruit and its main component trans-anethole. Molecules 2010;15:7558-69.
29) Astani A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils. Evid-Based Complementary Altern. Med 2009;2011:1-6.
30) Mohammed MJ. Isolation and identification of anethole from Pimpinella anisum L. fruit oil. An antimicrobial study. J Pharma Res 2009;2:915-19.
31) Dhingra D, Soni K. Nootropic activity of trans-anethole in young and middle-aged mice:possibly through inhibition of brain acetyl and butylcholinestrase activites and allevation of oxidative stress. European J Biomed Pharm Sci 2018;5:520-36.
32) Mosaffa-Jahromi M, Tamaddon AM, Afsharypuor S, Salehi A, Seradj SH, Pasalar M, Jafari P, Lankarani KB. Effectiveness of anise oil for treatment of mild to moderate depression in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized active and placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017;22:41-6.
33) Orav A, Raal A, Arak E. Essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits from various European countries. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:227-32.
34) Pu W, Changhong L, Lei L, Xingyi Z, Bingzhong R,Bingjin L. The Antidepressant-like effects of estrogen-mediated ghrelin. Curr Neuropharmacol 2015;13:524-35.
35) Dhingra D, Deepak Antidepressant-like activity of flowers of Tecomella undulata in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:130-38.
36) Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: A new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacol (Berl) 1985;85:367-70.
37) Willner P, Towell A, Sampson D, Sophokleous S, Muscat R. Reduction of sucrose preference by chronic unpredictable mild stress, and its restoration by a tricyclic antidepressant. Psychopharmacol (Berl) 1987;93:358-64.
38) Dhingra D, Bansal Y. Antidepressant-like activity of beta-carotene in unstressed and chronic unpredictable mild stressed mice. J Funct Foods 2014;7:425-34.
39) Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnock JS, Tannenbaum SR. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [N-15N]-labelled nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem 1982;126:131-38.
40) Bartos J, Pesez M. Colorimetric and fluorimetric determination of steroids. Pure Appl Chem 1979;151:2157-69.
41) Charles M, McEwan J. MAO activity in rabbit serum. In: Tabor H, Tabor CW, editors. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 17B. New York and London: Academic Press; 1977:692-98.
42) Schurr A, Liven A. Differential inhibition of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase from brain by hashish components. Biochem Pharmacol 1976;25:1201-3.
43) Gornall AG, Bardawill CJ, David MM. Determination of serum protein by means of the biuret reaction.J Biol Chem 1949;177:751-66.
44) Wills ED. Mechanisms of lipid peroxide formation in tissues. Role of metals and haematin proteins in the catalysis of the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1965;98:238-51.
45) Jollow DJ, Mitchell JR, Zampaglione N, Gillette JR. Bromobenz. Bromobenz induced liver necrosis: Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-bromobenzenoxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacol 1974;11:151-69.
46) Claiborne A. Catalase activity. In: Greenwald RA, editors. Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. Boca Raton: CRC; 1985. p. 283-4.
47) Zhao D, Zheng L, Qi L, Wang S, Guan L, Xia Y. Structural features and potent antidepressant effects of total sterols and beta-sitosterol extracted from Sargassum horneri. Mar Drugs 2016;14:1-11.
48) Willner P. Chronic mild stress (CMS) revisited: Consistency and behavioral-neurobiological in the effects of CMS. Neuropsychobiol 2005;52:90-110.
49) Deng X-Y, Li H-Y, Chen J-J, Li R-P, Qu R, Fu Q et al. Thymol produces an antidepressant-like effect in a chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression in mice. Behav Brain Res 2015; 291:12–19.
50) Erickson K, Drevets W, Schulkin J. Glucocorticoid regulation of diverse cognitive functions in normal and pathological emotional states. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2003:27:233-46.
51) Gupta D, Radhakrishan M, Kurhe Y. 5HT3 receptor antagonist (ondansetron) reverses depressive behavior evoked by chronic unpredictable stress in mice: modulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical and brain serotonergic system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2014;124:129–36.
52) Sakr HF, Abbas AM, Elsamanoudy AZ, Ghoneom FM. Effect of fluoxetine and resveratrol on testicular functions and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic mild stress-induced depression. J. Physiol Pharmacol 2015;66:515–27.
53) Durackova Z. Free radicals and antioxidants for non-experts. Systems Biology of Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2014;3–38.
54) Maes M, De Vos N, Pioli R, Demedts P, Wauters A, Neels H, et al. Lower serum vitamin E concentrations in major depression. Another marker of lowered antioxidant defenses in that illness. J Affect Disord. 2000;58:241–6.
55) Lee CY, Cheng HM, Sim SM. Mulberry leaves protect rat from immobilization stress-induced inflammation. Biofactors 2007;31:25 33.
56) Yazdanparast R, Bahramikia S, Ardestani A. (2008). Nasturtium officinale reduces oxidative stress and enhances antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Chem Biol Interact 2008;172:176–84.
57) Bhatt S, Mahesh R, Devadoss A, Dhar AK. Neuropharmacological evaluation of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (6g) on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced changes in behavioural and brain oxidative stress parameters in mice. Indian J Pharmacol 2014;46:191-96.
58) Liu J, Qiao W, Yang Y, Ren L, Sun Y, Wang S. Antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract from Suanzaorenhehuan formula in mice models of depression. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;141:257–64.
59) Mukherjee J, Yang Z-Y. Monoamine oxidase A inhibition by fluoxetine: an in vitro and in vivo study. Synapse 1999:31:285-9
Statistics
16 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Dhingra, D., and Sudha. “ANTIDEPRESSANT- LIKE ACTIVITY OF TRANS-ANETHOLE IN UNSTRESSED MICE AND STRESSED MICE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 12, Oct. 2019, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/35542.
Section
Original Article(s)